Changes During Pregnancy

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Pregnancy brings on many changes in the life of a woman and not just physically but mentally as well. A woman’s body undergoes these changes to prepare her for the new life emerging within. The most prominent change experienced during pregnancy is the increase in abdomen size, and a change in breast size quickly follows. These changes start from the first trimester and continue until childbirth (Attardo, Lohs, Heddi, Alam, Yildirim, & Aksoy, 2008). The breasts will undergo a series of radical changes to prepare the mother for breastfeeding (Attardo et al., 2008; Geddes, 2007; Geddes, Aljazaf, Kent, Prime, Spatz, Garbin, & Hartmann, 2013).
During pregnancy, a woman will undergo many visible and mental changes. As previously stated, the changes
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This hormone is essential for completing lobular development in the breast. Prolactin levels rise from a non-pregnant baseline of 10-25 ng/mL to 200-400 ng/mL at the end of the third trimester. Progesterone antagonism from the placenta enables prolactin levels to increase without subsequent milk production (Capuco& Akers, 2009; Geddes, 2007; Geddess et al, 2013).
Progesterone secretion begins to rise from the first day of pregnancy. In the presence of estrogen and prolactin, progesterone stimulates the proliferation of the mammary glands and prevents milk production. The high plasma of both the estrogen and progesterone hormones that are present before delivery inhibit the active secretory effects of prolactin and milk production (Capuco& Akers, 2009; Geddes, 2007; Geddess et al, 2013).
Other hormones
In addition to the regulatory role of the estrogen and progestin hormone, many growth factors, such as insulin-like growth factors, have been shown to stimulate the differentiation and development of mammary epithelial cells. Insulin is important for estrogen, progesterone, and prolactin to stimulate the growth of mammary epithelial cells. The human placental lactogen is a placental protein hormone that has lactogenic effects that may facilitate mammogenesis and delay milk production until after delivery ( Attardo, 2008; Capuco& Akers, 2009; Geddes, 2007; Geddess et al,
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