Changes in the Structure of Employment in Rural Areas

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CHANGES IN THE STRUCTURE OF EMPLOYMENT IN RURAL AREAS K. Hanumantha Rao Objectives (i) To study the emerging structural characteristics of the labour market in rural areas; (ii) To examine the levels of and trends in employment and unemployment in the last three decades; (iii) To understand the inter-relationships among economic growth-employment/unemployment and wages, and (iv) To suggest policy and programme interventions on the basis of (i) to (iii). Methodology The reference period of the study covering almost 25 years (1971 to 1993-94) include a few epochs of agricultural and rural development viz., green revolution and post-green revolution phases, era of poverty alleviation programmes and the early phase of die new…show more content…
The proportion of wage employed households was more or less constant and accounted for 30 per cent of the total rural households. The Indian rural labour market is characterised by the predominance of self and wage employed in agriculture. A rise in the share of agricultural labourers' has been an universal phenomenon confirming the marginalisation phenomenon; however the degree of increase varied across the states and over time. Furthermore, male workers joined the ranks of agricultural labour and a reverse pattern i.e. rise in 'cultivator' category was observed among female workers. Another disquieting feature has been the increasing degree of casualisation among female labourers and falling trend in regular employment, while incidence of casual labour was more among males. The regular employment was moderate in the case of females. The percentage of self-employed male workers was more in the North-West region. The casualisation of male labour was higher in South, West and East zones of India. As for female workers, there was an inverse relation between self-employment and casualisation and in states with high poverty incidence, the latter phenomenon has been on the rise. The wage rates were found to be low in several states but were high in
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