Chapter 10 Biology Assignment

Satisfactory Essays
Primary Literature Assignment
BIOL 1620 General Biology II

Your name: Carine Kessie

1. Chapter number and name: Chapter 26: Our understanding of the tree of life continues to change based on new data

2. Summary of what you learned from the chapter:

Once they were only two kingdoms: Plants and Animals. In the late 1960s biologists recognized five kingdoms: Protisto (kingdom consisting mostly of unicellular organisms), Plantae, Fungi, Animalia, Monera (Prokaryotes). This system highlighted the two fundamentally different types of cells prokaryotic and eukaryotic and set the prokaryotes apart from all eukaryotes by placing them in their own kingdom. However, it appears that phylogenies based on genetic data found out that some prokaryotes
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But as new forms of life were discovered and our knowledge of life on Earth grew, new categories, called Kingdoms were added. There eventually came to be five Kingdoms in all Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista, and Bacteria. The five Kingdoms were generally grouped into two categories called Eukarya and Prokarya. Eukaryotes represent four of the five Kingdoms (animals, plants, fungi, and protists). Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus a sort of sack that holds the cell’s DNA. Animals, plants, protists and fungi are all eukaryotes because they all have a DNA-holding nuclear membrane within their cells. The cells of prokaryotes, on the other hand, lack this nuclear membrane. Instead, the DNA is part of a protein-nucleic acid structure called the nucleoids. However, new insight into molecular biology changed this view of life. A type of prokaryotic organism that had long been categorized as bacteria turned out to have DNA that is very different from bacterial DNA. This difference led microbiologist to propose reorganizing the Tree of Life into three separate Domains: Eukarya, Eubacteria (true bacteria), and
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