Chapter 11 Study Guide Answer Key

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Chapter 11 Study Guide Answer Key
1. Why was the location of Arabia important?
Scattered oases, the highlands of Yemen, and interior mountains supported sedentary village­based agriculture, and in the northern and southern regions of Arabia, small kingdoms had flourished in earlier times. Arabia also sat astride increasingly important trade routes, which connected the Indian Ocean world with that of the Mediterranean Sea and gave rise to cosmopolitan commercial cities, whose values and practices were often in conflict with those of traditional Arab tribes. (Original: p. 303; With Sources: pp.
474­475)

2. Why was Mecca an important city? Why was Mecca’s dominant tribe important?
Though somewhat off the major long­distance trade
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The birth of Islam differed sharply from that of Christianity. Jesus’ teaching about
“giving to Caesar what is Caesar’s and to God what is God’s” reflected the minority and subordinate status of the Jews within the Roman Empire. The answer lay in the development of a separate church hierarchy and the concepts of two coexisting authorities, one religious and one political, an arrangement that persisted even after the state became Christian. By contrast, the young Islamic community found itself constituted as a state, and soon a huge empire. Muhammad was not only a religious figure but also, unlike Jesus or the Buddha, a political and military leader able to implement his vision of an ideal Islamic society. Nor did Islam give rise to a separate religious organization. No professional clergy mediating between God and humankind emerged within Islam. Teachers, religious scholars, prayer leaders, and judges within an
Islamic legal system did not have the religious role that priests held within Christianity.
No distinction between religious law and civil law, so important in the Christian world, existed within the realm of Islam. (Original: p. 307; With Sources: p. 478)

9. In the centuries that followed, what civilizations became part of the new Arab state?
The new Arab state became a huge empire, encompassing all or part of Egyptian,
Roman/Byzantine, Persian, Mesopotamian, and Indian civilizations. (Original: p. 308;
With Sources: p.

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