Chapter 2 Outline. Matter And Minerals. 1.Minerals: Building

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Chapter 2 Outline

Matter and Minerals

1. Minerals: Building Blocks of Rock
Mineralogy literally means the study of minerals. Humans use minerals and rocks in many ways, from jewelry, weapons, health and wellbeing. Mining of gold, silver and copper dates back to 3700 B.C. Mining means taking something out of the ground.

A. Defining a Mineral
A mineral is an organic solid that has a crystal structure and a chemical composition that is definite. There are several ways that you can classify minerals. The characteristics include: naturally occurring, generally inorganic, solid substance, orderly crystalline structure, or definite chemical composition that varies.

B. What is a Rock
Rocks are different from minerals and are defined as
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Ionic compounds, molecules, and metallic substances are some examples of bonded atoms. The electrical charge that holds the atoms together will determine the stability of a compound. Compounds are more stable than free atoms.

A. The Octet Rule and Chemical Bonds
Atoms have a tendency to either lose, gain, or share electrons until the atoms is surrounded by eight valence electrons. For an atom to have a full valence shell of electrons a chemical bond will share or transfer electrons in order for this to happen. The three types of transfer between electrons and elements are ionic, covalent, or metallic.

B. Ionic Bonds: Electrons Transferred
An ion is an atom that is both has a positive and negative charge. The attraction of oppositely charged ions to one another is an ionic bond. Table salt is a very good example of an ionic bond.

C. Covalent Bonds: Electron Sharing
A covalent bond is the sharing of paired electrons between atoms. For example, if two hydrogen atoms meet their electron configuration changes. Then both of the electrons will occupy the space between the atoms.

D. Metallic Bonds: Electrons Free to Move
When metal atoms pack together in a specific and orderly fashion metals such as gold, silver, and copper are produced. Each metallic atom gave up its valence electron to form a common pool of electrons in the entire structure. The freedom of valence electrons to
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