Chapter 28: the Islamic Empires

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Chapter 28: The Islamic Empires

Osman Bey: The founder of the dynasty that continued in unbroken succession until the dissolution of the empire. He was chief of a band of semi-nomadic Turks who migrated to northwestern Anatolia.

Ghazi: What all Osman followers wanted to become, otherwise known as Muslim religious warriors.

Ottomans: Those who were located on the borders of the Byzantine empire and followed Osman Bey. They captured the Anatolian city of Bursa and made it their capital. Their formidable military machine drove them to expansion.

Devshirme: Required by the Ottomans for the Christian population of the Balkans to contribute young boys to become slaves of the sultan. Those boys received special training, learned
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Furthermore, although Persian Mongols had adopted Islam, the Mughals were Muslim who reigned over a large population of Hindus as well as Muslims.

2. In the Islamic Empire, many Muslims were traders; therefore, they traveled in the empire and explored distant lands. Because of the need for navigation advancements, Muslims took interest in astronomy, navigation, and maps and developed advancements. Muslims in the Islamic Empire first used and studied maps drafted by the Greeks and later, as they learned more about the land they conquered, they added improvements and constructed more maps. The Muslim geographers were they first to use measurements and scales to make the most accurate maps.

3. The Mughal and the Ottoman Empires were two of the greatest and most powerful civilizations of the ancient period. Their fame and glory in the sixteenth century represented the zenith of art, architecture, and human creativity. These eminent empires were the largest and the most influential civilizations of the Muslim world, and their splendor reached as far as Europe. The two most important rulers of these empires were Akbar the Great and Suleiman the Magnificent, under whose reign the empire reached its triumphant moments. Just as the reign of Akbar and Suleiman marked the Golden age, their deaths resulted in the slow downfall of the empires. Both the Ottoman and Mughal empires were distinctive civilizations of their time due to the local culture

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