Chapter 3 Outline: the Biological Bases of Behavior

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Chapter 3
The Biological Bases of Behavior

Communication in the Nervous System * Nervous Tissue: The Basic Hardware * Neurons are individual cells in the nervous system that receive, integrate, and transmit information. * The soma, or cell body, contains the cell nucleus and much of the chemical machinery common to most cells. * Dendrites are the parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information. * The axon is a long, thin fiber that transmits signals away from the soma to other neurons or to muscles or glands. * The axon ends in a cluster of terminal buttons, which are small knobs that secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters. * The Neural Impulse: Using Energy to Send
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* The Hypothalamus: A Regulator of Biological Needs * The hypothalamus is a structure found near the base of the forebrain that is involved in the regulation of basic biological needs. * The Limbic System: The Seat of Emotion * The limbic system is a loosely connected network of structures located roughly along the border between the cerebral cortex and deeper subcortical. * The Cerebrum: The Seat of Complex Thought * The cerebral cortex is the convoluted outer layer of the cerebrum. * The cerebral hemispheres are the right and left halves of the cerebrum. * The corpus callosum is the major structure that connects the two cerebral hemispheres. * The Plasticity of the Brain * First, studies have shown that aspects of experience can sculpt features of brain structure. * Second, research has shown that damage to incoming sensory pathways or the destruction of brain tissue can lead to neural reorganization. * Third, recent studies indicate that the adult brain can generate new neurons.
Right Brain/Left Brain: Cerebral Specialization * Bisecting the Brain: Split-Brain Research * In split-brain surgery the bundle of fibers that connects cerebral hemispheres (the corpus callosum) is cut to reduce the severity of epileptic seizures. * Hemispheric Specialization in the Intact Brain * If you are right handed,
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