Essay about Chapter One

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The Role of the
Public Accountant in the
American Economy

Review Questions

1-1 The “crisis of credibility” largely arose from the number of companies that restated their previously issued financial statements as a result of accounting irregularities and fraud. Especially responsible were the very visible Enron and WorldCom fraud cases. Both companies filed for bankruptcy and constituted the largest companies in American history to do so. The extent of the accounting irregularities and fraud being investigated and disclosed brought into question the effectiveness of financial statement audits. In addition, the criminal conviction of Arthur Andersen, LLP, one of the then Big 5 accounting firms, on charges of
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Particular emphasis is placed on the income statement which is of great importance to investors. Auditing today also has the objectives of meeting the requirements of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board for public companies.

1-9 An operational audit attempts to measure the effectiveness and efficiency of a specific unit of an organization. It involves more subjective judgments than a compliance audit or an audit of financial statements because the criteria of effectiveness and efficiency of departmental performance are not as clearly established as are many laws and regulations or generally accepted accounting principles.
The report prepared after completion of an operational audit is usually directed to management of the organization in which the audit work was done.

1-10 A compliance audit is an audit to determine whether financial reports or other assertions are in compliance with established criteria. The necessary ingredients are verifiable data and the existence of standards established by an authoritative body. An operational audit, on the other hand, is a review of a department or other unit of a business or governmental organization to measure the effectiveness and efficiency of operations. Internal auditors often perform operational

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