A group of wireless sensor nodes (devices) dynamically constructs a temporary network without the exercise of any pre-existing network infrastructure or centralized administration. The main goal of ad-hoc networking is multihop broadcasting in which packets are transferred from source node to destination node through the intermediate nodes (hops). The main function of multi hop WSN is to enable communication between two terminal devices through a bit of middle nodes, which are transferring information from one level to another level. On the foundation of network connectivity, it dynamically gets to determine that which nodes should get included in routing, each node involved in routing transmit the data to further
The Mobile ad hoc networks is one of the emerging technologies today. The instability of the nodes in a mobile ad hoc network makes it difficult to calculate the reliability of the network. When a node moves freely move in a
The broadcast tree construction of the routing protocol is having of two stages. In the ﬁrst stage, the sink node broadcast an advertisement message ADV1. Upon receipt ofADV1 message, each node of the WSN executes the algorithm given in the procedureBTC-phase1, and set its ﬁrst parent ﬁeld so that the path to the sink node through it has least cost. Upon completion of the ﬁrst stage, the sink broadcast a second advertisement message ADV2. Upon receipt of ADV2 message, each node of the WSN executes the algorithm given in the procedure BTC-phase2, and set its second parent ﬁeld so that the path to the sink node through it has the
Reactive routing protocols were designed to reduce the overheads by maintaining information for active routes at each node . This means that each node determined and maintained routes only, when it requires sending data to a particular destination. It using two main mechanisms for route establishment: Route discovery and Route maintenance [17, 25]. Route discovery mechanism uses two messages: Route Request (RREQ) and Route Reply (RREP).
There are many protocols that should be taken into account for nodes to communicate effectively over a network. There are several different protocols that should be considered such as how packets are transmitted, how the destination of the packet is identified, and are there any security issues.
Routing lies at the core of any NDN architecture. NDN projects have proposed diverse solutions for routing. In this survey, I present a list of major NDN routing projects and the comparative analysis of four proposed routing models based on performance evaluation factors. My perspective on the requirements of ideal content routing model is introduced based on results of the survey.
VANET integrates on multiple ad-hoc networking technologies such as Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11), WiMAX (IEEE 802.16), Bluetooth, ZigBee etc. for easy, accurate, effective and simple communication between vehicles on dynamic mobility. In the past decade, VANET research has addressed all the layers, physical to application to support the design of new possible applications for the society. VANET is an appropriate network that can be used in intelligent transportation systems and in many social
The main objective of this paper is to propose an on demand QoS routing algorithm. Since the requirements for various applications may vary time to time, the approach for QoS routing may not be proactive. The proposed approach has two phases namely route discovery phase and route maintenance phase. When a source node has to pass data to a destination node with QoS requirements it starts with the route discovery phase. Once the route is found, the data transfer will take place. While data transmission is going on, it is also required to maintain the path to the destination. This is very much desirable and required in mobile ad hoc networks and hence is done in the route maintenance phase.
Abstract — The Delay Tolerant Networking (DTN) aims at providing effective medium for communicating where no continuous connectivity is guaranteed for a given network. It is really important especially when there are faulty nodes in a network. Mobile Sensor Networks are one of the most fault prone networks due to its inherent nature of limited resources. Existing routing schemes promotes the algorithms to make use of message replication to ensure high delivery rate for messages. Protocols that rely on message replication or flooding mechanisms contribute to overhead in network communication by producing large number of duplicate packets. This paper gives research findings along with a survey on performance of DTN routing protocols which
The further sections of survey paper are organized as follows: Section 2 provides the introduction about the different routing algorithms that we are comparing. Simulation setup and data traces used are under Section 3. Metrics to calculate algorithm performance are under section 4. Section 5 shows the performance comparisons for all the routing algorithms. Default parameter settings are used for this purpose. The performance comparison includes the average message replication statistics of each protocol, packet drop ratio, the message delivery cost, message overhead ratio for a protocol, Number of redundant packets in the network, total message forwards required in each network and lastly the packet wastage index. Section 6 comprises of
Abstract— this paper is an involvement in the field of security study on mobile ad-hoc networks. Boundaries of the mobile ad hoc nodes have been considered in order to design a secure Geographic routing protocol that thwarts selfish and flooding attacks. We took the base of Ad hoc On Demand Routing Protocol (AODV); the most popular Routing protocol. The significance of the proposed protocol that should make sure security as wanted by providing a broad architecture of Secured PPEM Mechanism based Multi-Hop Strong Path Geographic Routing protocol (SMHSP) based on effective key management, secure neighbor detection, secure routing data’s, finding malicious nodes, and eliminating these nodes from routing table. Our results clearly show that our secured Geographic routing protocol increases the throughput and packet delivery ratio while it has a tolerable increase in the routing overhead and average delay. Also, security study proves in details that the proposed protocol
Vehicular Ad-hoc networks are used in order to improve the Traffic Efficiency and road side safety.
Abstract: Because of high speed of vehicles, short contact durations and rapid changes in topology occurs in Vehicular Delay Tolerant Network (VDTN). This will generates few transmission opportunities and high and unpredictable delay. This problem can be solved by different routing protocol of VDTN. The VDTN protocol can be divided as single copy and multi copy. In single copy protocol the node is allowed to generate the unique copy of message and forward it on a unique path. The multi copy protocols generate and transmit the multiple copies of each message and forward it along various paths. If more number of copies spread in network there are more chances for successful transmission. The objective of paper is to improve performance of VDTN by modifying existing Spray and Wait protocol. In this paper we provide proposed algorithm for modify spray and wait protocol for improving delivery probability with different number of message copy. The modifications based on stored number of message copies at source/rely nodes and encountered nodes ratio.
A Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) consists of a set of mobile hosts that carry out basic networking functions like packet forwarding, routing, and service discovery without the help of an established infrastructure . Nodes of an ad hoc network rely on one another in forwarding a packet to its destination, due to the limited range of each mobile host’s wireless transmissions. An ad hoc network uses no centralized administration. This ensures that the network will not cease functioning just because one of the mobile nodes moves out of the range of the others. Nodes should be able to enter and leave the network as they wish. Because of the limited transmitter range of the nodes, multiple hops are generally needed to reach other nodes. Every node in an ad hoc network must be willing to forward packets for other nodes. Thus, every node acts both as a host and as a router. The topology of ad hoc networks varies with time as nodes move, join or leave the network. This topological instability requires a routing protocol to run on each node to create and maintain routes among the nodes .