Charcoal Briquette

2210 Words May 8th, 2011 9 Pages
CHAPTER ONE
Literature Review
1.0 Introduction
Charcoal is defined as dark grey residue consisting of impure carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances [1] or a black grey form of carbon, produce by heating wood or other organic substances in enclosed space without air.
Charcoal is basically composed of tiny particles or carbon[2] which is usually produce by slow pyrolysis, heating of wood, sugar, bone char, or other substances in the absence of oxygen resulting in soft, brittle, lightweight, black, porous material which resembles coal and is about 50 percent to 95 percent of carbon[3].
The traditional way of producing charcoal is ‘the Kiln process’ is normally associated with
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1.3.1 Raw Materials for Charcoal briquette
Millions of tons of agricultural wastes are generated every year which are either destroyed or burnt inefficiently in loose from causing air pollution.
Theses wastes can be recycled and can provide a renewable source of energy by converting biomass waste into high density fuel briquettes.
With the exception of papers or waste papers, the raw materials for charcoal briquettes are can be grouped into 2 which are agro wastes and forest wastes.
The agro wastes are mustard waste, rice husk, arhar stalks, coconuts husks, palm kernel, cocoa pods, groundnut shells, pine needles sarkanda, bagasse, coffee husk, cotton stalk, sunflower and waste, sugarcane bagasse, leaves and trash, maize stalks, bar cobs, coir dust whiles the forest wastes includes wood chips and shavings, tree bark and twigs, sawdust, bamboo and bamboo leaves, wild grasses and shrubs. The above raw materials can be briquettes with or without using any binder and the briquette normally contains calorific value of about 3500-4800K.cal/kg [6].
It is completely sustainable, however, the modern briquette manufacturers do take the environment seriously and now manufacturer their char from wood shavings and sawdust i.e. the waste product of the lumber industry [7].

1.3.2 Charcoal briquette
Charcoal briquettes are made by compressing charcoal, typically made from sawdust and other wood by-product, with a binder and other additives. The binder is usually starch. Some