The radical chlorination of chlorobutane is performed using AIBN and sulfuryl chloride. The purpose in doing this is so that the 4 different products yielded could be observed and analyzed. The four products produced are, 1,1-dichlorobutane, 1,2-dichlorobutane, 1,3-dichlorobutane, and 1,4-dichlorobutane. For each product the chlorine adds in a different location relative to the original chlorine. This is due to a number of reasons, including the degree of carbon substitution and proximity to the chloro substituent.. The goal with this in the experiment was to find out why each product is given in different yields. Experimentally, to determine the effect of the chloro substituent on the reactivity per hydrogen, a gas
Chlorine was first discovered by a man whose profession was in the medical field. However, since it was 1774, the technology wasn’t as advanced and therefore led him to misleading conclusions. Carl Wilhelm Sheele was a Swedish pharmacist who, “released a few drops of hydrochloric acid onto a piece of manganese dioxide in his lab, and a greenish-yellow gas was produced in a matter of seconds…” (Alchin, Linda. “The Element Chlorine.” What Is Chlorine?, www.elementalmatter.info/element-chlorine.htm.). Before Sir Humphry Davy, people thought that Chlorine was a form of oxygen. Sir Humphry Davy later proved otherwise. Although this element was never thought to be used this way, in World War I Chlorine was used as a “choking agent”. Men would suffer
H2O2 is commonly known as hydrogen peroxide and it is a strong oxidizer and a naturally produced compound in humans as a by-product of oxidative metabolism. Because of this, humans also produce the enzyme catalase peroxidases in order to convert small amounts of H2O2 into oxygen and water. It uses the following chemical formula:
“Peroxisomes are so named because they usually contain enzymes that use oxygen to remove hydrogen atoms from specific substrates in an oxidative reaction that produces hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (McCance & Huether, pg. 7).
Hot tubs are very popular across America due to their relaxation as well as health benefits. Hot tubs have been attributed health benefits ranging from relief of muscle and joint pain, to help in treatment of HIV and other viral infections. Because of this, many people own hot tubs and many more go to health spas where they can use them.
Backtrack to April 22, 1915. Halfway around the world in Ypres, Belgium, German forces surprise two French Colonial divisions by unleashing nearly 150 tons of pure fatal chlorine gas. Because they had never been exposed to chemical warfare on a scale like this; The French forces had no protection against this deadly toxin. This lack of preparation sent front line troops into a panic. Nearly 6,000 troops were killed because of the deadly gas. These soldiers did not die peacefully, as they choked and burned to death as if they were parasites. The Germans, who bombarded “No man’s land” and the front line trenches with the chlorine gas were equally as surprised with the devastation the unbeatable gas left. Long story short, although German forces had a major advantage with this toxic new weapon; they failed to come out of the Second Battle of Ypres with a victory. Shortly after worldwide mass production of gas masks were being put into effect for the war. This first use of chemical warfare changed the entire
Dr. Maureen Knabb stated that, “MH is a genetic condition that only becomes obvious when a patient is exposed to certain anesthetics such as halothane.” Halothane is known to cause the heart rate to increase (Knabb, 2006). The article from the website, Malignant Hyperthermia Death Holds Many Lessons, by Henry Rosenberg, MD and Al Rothstei states that “Steven developed a severe bleeding problem as well as a problem with heart function,” as the result of MH. Therefore, his heart rate increased due to the effect of the anesthetic given to him during surgery, but his heart was malfunctioning, which means that blood was not pumping properly.
From the beginning of the spraying 51 years ago, and even today, millions of Vietnamese have died from, or been completely incapacitated by, diseases which the US government recognizes are related to Agent Orange, according to Truth-out.org. Many people refuse to believe that Agent Orange had any bad or harmful effect on the environment and on people. In my opinion, Agent Orange was a very deadly toxin, has had a very big and negative impact on both the environment in Vietnam and other countries around the world, and it has had a big and negative impact on people by causing diseases and disorders.
Society during 1800’s was vigorous due to the comparison of risk to use chloroform, with women being Snow’s main target in research there was still confusion amongst pubic. Despite this religion had mixed views about chloroform, some would refuse its use and others had no reasons for their opinion but some had no concerns due to the Queens uses. A few religions views were supported by media, whereas others supported Simpson’s views and medical support was similar in the way of split views of chloroform, but was widely discussed but some medical leaders believed chloroform was unethical. The Church of England preached the uses of chloroform, but because of the Queen’s uses their views changed because of the success. In the 20th century, chloroform
In the post 9/11 era of America, terrorism has become an unfortunate part of life. Since that day, America has seen six different attacks that have been aspired by Islamic extremism. From the anthrax attack in late 2001 to the San Bernardino attack in 2015 the increased violence has only become more frequent and more difficult to predict (Ilich, 2016). This includes the most recent example or Islamic extremism that occurred in Orland, FL at Pule night club when 29 year old Omar Mateen opened fire on unsuspecting victim claiming the lives of 49 and wounding an additional 53 (Ilich, 2016). The Boston bombing was the first time since the anthrax attacks that terrorism involved more than just a firearm (Ilich, 2016). The evolution of attacks makes since to move on from simple weapons to chemical attacks. The threat of chlorine attacks has to be considered with the ever growing use of it in Iraq and Syria. This discussion will look at the history of chlorine as a weapon. Then review current uses of chlorine as a weapon by Islamic extremist. Afterwards, theoretically look at how a chlorine weapon should be used in the United States, specifically Las Vegas. Then finish with how to prevent that attack.
I chose this project because I am a competitive swimmer and I have been swimming for the past ten and a half years. I wanted to find out how much chlorine remains in a pool each day after chlorination. I am interested to see how much residual chlorine is left and the range in which there appears skin irritation and red eyes because I have experienced the red eyes and itchy skin due to over chlorination.
Whether it’s kinetics, flying, invisibility or mind reading, super powers is something that humanity has been striving to obtain long before we can even recall. With science and technology moving forward, what once seemed just a fantasy is shaping into something more possible now. Scientists all over the world are working on various ways to create a better, more advanced “model of human”.
The last endocrine disrupting chemical I will discuss is Triclosan. The chemical found in Triclosan is Triclocarban. The products that contain this endocrine disruptor are personal care products and antimicrobial products such as soaps and Colgate Total toothpaste. In (Greenfield’s 2016) view, "The effects Triclosan has on animal and human tissue is early puberty, poor sperm quality, infertility, obesity, cancer, impaired learning and memory exacerbate allergies and weakened muscle function." Even though most people try to prevent the health issues associated with Triclosan, the chemical is still exposable because of the people that still use it. For example, once the toothpaste is used it goes down the drain which is connected to the waterways, food, and environment. In addition, Triclosan is in the toothpaste Colgate Total which makes it a dangerous product but it is very successful and would take a lot to get it took off the market completely to prevent health issues.
Scientists all over the world have been widely researching to find out ways in which the ozone layer is being destroyed through human actions. The ozone layer is gradually being destroyed by ozone depleting chemicals. These chemicals include chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydroflourocarbons (HFCs), methyl bromide, halons, methyl chloroform and carbon tetrachloride among others (Ryding 173). These chemicals are used locally in coolants, fire extinguishers, solvents, pesticides, aerosol propellants and foaming agents.