Chemical Substances : Chemical Agent With Corrosive Properties And A Potential Weapon Of Mass Destruction

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Introduction
• Chlorine is widely used industrial chemical agent with corrosive properties and a potential weapon of mass destruction.
• At standard temperature and pressure exists as Greenish-yellow color gas with suffocating pungent odor. Under high pressure or low temperature, it turns to clear, amber-colored liquid.1
Chlorine is heavier than air, and therefore it will remain near the ground in areas with little air movement.1
• It is used in water treatment, household cleaning products, manufacturing solvents, pesticides, synthetic rubber, and refrigerants.
• Chlorine represents a persistent hazardous material (HAZMAT) threat.2
• The United States industrial production is over 15 million tons each year.2
• Chlorine
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These acids continue to react and produce oxygen free radicals. The acids and free radicals damage cell walls and lead to bronchial edema, desquamation of epithelial cells, erosions and localized necrosis, and induces an inflammatory response of the upper and lower respiratory tracts.2
• The health effects of chlorine inhalation depend on chlorine concentration(mild/moderate vs sever) and duration of exposure( acute vs chronic)
• After exposure to chlorine greater than 15 PPM, The effect may be immediate or delayed for several hours or days.4
• Concentrations greater than 430 PPM are fatal within 30 minutes.4
• Pulmonary manifestations: nose and throat irritation, sneezing, cough, choking, bronchospasm, wheezing, dyspnea, sputum production and chest pain. If severe, persistent hypoxemia, pulmonary edema, Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), and may lead to cardiac or respiratory arrest.
• Dermal manifestations: irritation, pain, erythema, blister and chemical burns.
• Ocular manifestations: burning discomfort, blinking, redness, conjunctivitis and lacrimation. In severe exposure: Corneal burns and ulceration that could lead to corneal opacity and blindness.5
• Ingestion of chlorine dissolved in water (e.g., sodium hypochlorite or household bleach) causes corrosive tissue damage of the esophageal and stomach. Esophageal pain with swallowing, drooling and refusal of food. Substernal chest pain,

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