Chemicals in Medicines

2022 Words Dec 22nd, 2006 9 Pages
Chemicals in medicines
Rakesh Mohan Hallen

The words ‘medicine' and 'drug' are often used in our country to mean the same substances: any substance, manufactured artificially, which can help recovery from sickness, relieve symptoms or modify a natural process in the body. A medicine is often a mixture of several chemical compounds. Even if it has only one active component compound often other substances are used as fillers or binders to give it bulk. Chemistry, the science related to chemical substances, provides us the tools to make and study the substances that are the constituents of almost all medicines. The past hundred years or so, ever since the advent of organic chemistry, many chemical compounds have been discovered in nature
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They consist of a glycosylated cyclic or polycyclic nonribosomal peptide. Important glycopeptide antibiotics include vancomycin, teicoplanin, ramoplanin, and decaplanin.
This class of drugs inhibit the synthesis of cell walls in susceptible microbes by inhibiting peptidoglycan synthesis. Due to their toxicity, their use is restricted to those patients who are critically ill or who have a demonstrated hypersensitivity to the β-lactams.

Penicillins are one major class of antibiotics. They are used to treat strep throat and countless other infections. Examples of various kinds of penicillins include
Amoxicillin

Ampicillin

Azlocillin

Carbenicillin

Cloxacillin

Dicloxacillin

Flucloxacillin

Mezlocillin

Nafcillin

Penicillin

Common structural features of Beta-Lactams; (The beta-lactams get their name from the characteristic ring structure — shown here in blue — that they all share. (The green arrow shows the bond that is broken by a class of enzymes called beta-lactamases that are synthesized by many penicillin-resistant bacteria.)

Tetracycline
Tetracyclines are another category of antibiotics. In addition to being used to treat infections, they are often used to manage acne. A few of the tetracyclines frequently used are:
 Achromycin V® (Tetracycline)
 Minocin®

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