Chemistry : Blood Concentrations Found At Controlled Clinical Studies, Non Fatal, And Fatal Intoxications

1600 WordsNov 9, 20147 Pages
Table 1: MDMA blood concentrations found at controlled clinical studies, non-fatal, and fatal intoxications. Source: Carvalho, M., Carmo, H., Costa, V. M., Capela, J. P., Pontes, H., Remião, F., ... & de Lourdes Bastos, M. Toxicity of amphetamines: an update. Archives of toxicology 2012, 86(8), 1167-1231. MDMA, having two enantiomers with slightly varying properties, is absorbed as a racemate mixture the majority of the time. Studies suggest that the R-enantiomer has a greater ability to dissolve in the blood, as a 40mg dose of MDMA resulted in the blood concentration of the R-enantiomer rising 2 to 4 times as fast as the S-enantiomer (Fallon et al., 1999). Figure 4: (R)/(-)-enantiomer (top) and (S)/(+)-enantiomer of MDMA (bottom). Image from public domain, courtesy of the Wikimedia Commons When MDMA is taken, it enters through passive diffusion (Granquist L.,2014), or the reuptake transporters into the serotonin axon terminal of the neurons in the brain. The MDMA then causes much of the stored serotonin in the axon terminal vesicle to be released. As the electrical signal travels down the axon it also causes release of the other two neurotransmitters, dopamine and norepinephrine. (Volkow, 2014). Serotonin cell dendrites and cell bodies start at a specific area of the brain called the raphe nuclei. The axons on these serotonin cells are quite long and extend into a great area of the brain. (Sferios, 2014) Because these axons are so long, serotonin can reach many places

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