Chemistry Lab Essay

662 Words Feb 27th, 2013 3 Pages

Experiment #1-Density
Aim: Learn how the process of distillation occurs. Observe how distillation separates alcohol from wine.
Method: Distillation is based on the fact that the matter can exist in three phases - - solid, liquid and gas. As the temperature of a pure substance is increased, it passes through these phases, making a transition at a specific temperature from solid to liquid (melting point--mp) and then at a higher temperature from liquid to gas (boiling point--bp). Distillation involves evaporating a liquid into a gas phase, then condensing the gas back into a liquid and collecting the liquid in a clean receiver. Substances that have a higher boiling point than the desired material will not distill at the
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This is the same process as in distillation that involves evaporating a liquid into a gas phase, then condensing the gas back into a liquid

2. Port and sherry are called “fortified wines”, because alcohol is added to a fermented wine to prevent it from turning to vinegar when exposed to air. Beginning with squeezed grape-juice-which contains sugar, water, and yeast- design a procedure for making a fortified wine. 1) Add the yeast to the grape-juice, speeding up the fermentation of the juice. 2) When the grape-juice has around 3-5% residual sugar, add brandy to the juice. 3) Drain the juice, removing the dead yeast.
3. What happens to the proof-rating of the brandy, as the distillation process continues? Why?
The proof (twice the % alcohol) starts at its maximum and goes down (as the alcohol evaporates). If we start with a high concentration of alcohol, we will get the azeotrope (95% alcohol, 5% water) for a while, then the concentration will decrease.

4. Commercial brandy is brown in color, while your “raw” brandy is colorless. Why the difference? Is brandy simply a water-alcohol mixture?
After two distillations, the clear, colorless alcohol is given itsdistinctive nutty brown color and flavor by aging wood, often oak barrel. The longer abrandy ages, the more refined its flavor is judged to be. Brandy is a spirit made by distilling grapes to a higher proof than they achieve