Mayo Clinic PRT (Moertel, Lancet 1969; PMID: 4186452) randomized 64 patients with locally advanced unresectable pancreatic ACA to RT alone vs. chemoRT (35 to 40 Gy +/- concurrent 5-FU). Survival was significantly improved with chemoRT (10.4 vs. 6.3 months). A subsequent Gastrointestinal Tumor Study Group Trial 9273 also demonstrated benefit with chemoRT (Moertel, Cancer 1981; PMID: 7284971). Patients (194) were randomized to RT alone (60 Gy) vs. chemoRT to 40 Gy vs. chemoRT to 60 Gy. RT was given as a split course with 2 weeks between each 20 Gy. Chemo was 5-FU 500 mg/m2/d on d1-3 of each 20 Gy course and then maintenance 5-FU for 2 years. Concurrent chemoRT improved MS compared to RT alone, and there was a trend toward better survival
The aim of the treatment is to remove the tumor without damaging the tissues around the tumor.Treatment may include liver resection, radiation and medication.The treatment for malignant tumor is liver resection,chemotherapy
Radiotherapy is a form of treatment where the use of radiation energy is employed to destroy cancerous cells, stop the progression of cancer, and/or to encourage remission. This kind of therapy is usually combined with cancer medication to increase the aggressiveness and effectiveness of the treatment (Desantis et al., 2014). Radiotherapy is introduced at different stages of cancer depending on its type. For instance, in breast cancer, radiotherapy is used simultaneously with chemotherapy as soon as the diagnosis is made. Surgery can also be recommended in many cases and use as a combination of treatments. Surgery could be use not only as a treatment option, but also for diagnosis, staging and prevention (ACS,
Acute radiation syndrome or ARS is one of many common effects of radiation. ARS is usually caused by high levels of radiation for short periods of time. What happens internally is there is a depletion of parenchymal stem cells in specific parts of tissue. An example of how one would
Cancer is such a common disease that of which many families has at least a member that had encountered that disease weather they survived it or not. Basically, cancer is a growth of an abnormal cells in organs in the body. There are more than 100 types of cancer where each type is classified by the organ of which the abnormal cells start to grow on. There are many reasons that causes cancer therefore there specific treatments for each type of cancer. Since there are too many types of cancer that is caused by different factors, there are a lot of treatments for it yet the most common treatment is called Chemo-therapy.
If a patient is diagnosed with The surgery is hard to perform because the pancreas is a soft tissue and filled with blood and liquid etc. therefore making it hard to cut and remove. Chemotherapy is offered after the surgery, if it is performed to try and prevent the cancer returning. If the pancreatic cancer is metastatic, chemotherapy is offered to help with quality of life and trying to extend the patient’s life.
One of the vital components of a radiation therapy position is the ability to work as a valued team member. I spent two months in a clinic that lacked a strong team dynamic. I believe this started with the lead therapist who was disconnected from the team and it felt as though the team was constantly fighting against each other. This lack of leadership and team dynamic was taking a tool on the work flow on the department but most of all it was affecting the patients. When I was there I could tell that some of the patients were affected by the lack of communication. Being new in this field and the department I found it difficult to witness this and not say anything.
Discussion The frequency (96%) of DNR designation for patients dying of cancer in this study is among the highest reported. Studies from other countries reported wide variability in the frequency of DNR documentation. A study from a Japanese cancer center reported a similar frequency where 97% of cancer deaths had a DNR order documented.14 In a
Introduction: Radiation therapy is the utilization of radiation in order to treat diseases like cancer as well as to detect other ailments that someone may have. Since the development of radiation therapy many advancements have been made both to the process of using radiation itself, which in turn increased its effectiveness for medical use, and to the study of other possible uses for radiation. The concepts behind radiation therapy are not overly complicated, but they are still revolutionary ideas that have greatly impacted society and people’s wellness.
INTRODUCTION Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death Worldwide. It is the eighth most common cause of death from cancer in both individuals. Higher incidence is noted as thirteen because of the very poor prognosis. Less than 5% of all patients are still alive only for 5 years after initial diagnosis. It is rarely detected in the early stages and conventional cancer treatment failed due to high resistance to chemotherapy.
1.Introduction: The numbers of people who are dying due to crucial diseases such as cancer have increased, according to world health organization (WHO) cited in Jane et al (2008), in 2005, 7.6 million people died from cancer, a figure expected to increase to 9 million people by 2015 , and
Pediatric low-grade gliomas (pLGG) are the most common pediatric brain tumor and account for 35% of central nervous system tumors in children (1–4). pLGG includes a range of histologic types with WHO grade I pilocytic astrocytoma being the most frequent (3). Clinically, pLGGs are generally slow growing lesions that can occur throughout the central nervous system and are surgically removedwhen possible.Complete surgical resection is the most significant predictor of improved survival in pLGG (5). However, the extent of resection is often dependent on tumor location and hence, only feasible for a subset of cases. For example, tumors arising in the posterior fossa can be completely resected and thereby boast an excellent progression free This results in the N-terminal regulatory domain of BRAF being replaced, leading to constitutively enhanced kinase activity (21). Five separate KIAA1549-BRAF fusion configurations were originally described including between exons 16;9, 15;9, 16;11, 18;10, and 19;9 in order of prevalence (19). Fusions involving FAM131B and SRGAP3 with BRAF resulting in similar kinase activation have also been described, although at significantly lower frequencies (21, 22). Subsequent findings showed that RAS-MAPK activation through BRAF fusions are present in both grade I and grade II malignancies, although significantly less frequent in the latter (21, 23–27). The presence of BRAF fusion events in pLGG has been shown to aid in tumor diagnosis (28), predict clinical outcome (29, 30), and dictate the most appropriate therapeutic approach (31–33), and, as such, represents a critical factor in the management of pLGG. Besides BRAF, additional fusions such as those involving FGFR1, MYB/MYBL1, QKI, and NTRK2/3 have also been described in pLGG (34–37). As is seen in the BRAF fusions, kinase activation is the resultant effect. Due to their size and location, pLGG biopsies are generally
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Cancer can be classified as a typed of disease that causes an overgrowth of cells (1). The cancer cells begin to divide at an abnormal rate which can cause lumps or tumors. This disease is very widespread and includes over 100 different types. Some of the most common types of cancer include, Breast Cancer, Leukemia, Prostate Cancer, and Melanoma (2). Because this disease is so widespread and one of the leading causes of death, researchers are working hard to develop ways to prevent and treat cancer. Over the years, many of these treatments have shown great potential for a cure to cancer. One of these that is gaining more advancements every year is the treatment of cancer using Immunotherapy. Immunotherapy is the use of a person’s immune system in order to fight cancer. By taking what they know about how the immune system works scientists have discovered many ways to treat cancer with immunotherapy. Some of the current treatments of caner using immunotherapy include, antibody therapy, cell mediated immunotherapy, and cytokine immunotherapy.