Warnings and dangers of alcohol abuse have been recognized since biblical times. “Behold, thou shalt conceive and bear a son: and now drink no wine or strong drinks” (Holy Bible, Judges 13:7, 1970, p.261). There was even mention from Aristotle who noted “that foolish, drunken and harebrained women most often bring forth children like unto themselves, morose and languid.” (Buxton, 2004, p.42). Alcohol abuse is not easily recognized by a mother or easily identified at birth. Some mothers continue to drink because they are unaware they have actually conceived a child. It is important that once pregnancy is
Although throughout the United States activist and educational campaigns have flooded U.S citizens with education on the detrimental effects of maternal alcohol consumption, women are still continuing to consume alcohol while pregnant. Fifty three percent of non-pregnant woman drink alcohol, and despite health warnings, twelve percent of pregnant mothers in the United States still consume alcohol (Pruett &Waterman & Caughey, 2013, p. 62). Fetal alcohol exposure is also believed to be widely underreported in the United States (Pruett et al., 2013, p. 66). Current research concludes that there is no safe level of alcohol consumption, nor a safe time during gestation for alcohol consumption to take place (National Organization on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome [NOFAS], 2014). Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) is an umbrella term used for the various conditions that maternal alcohol consumption causes. Although each case of FASD can present differently, cognitive disabilities, facial deformities, and growth retention are a few of the hallmark adverse effects that alcohol has when it enters fetal circulation (Paley & O’Connor, 2011, p. 64). The United States is impacted economically by these debilitating conditions as well, as it costs our nation $746 million dollars annually to care for these children (Bhuvaneswar, Chang, Epstein & Stern, 2007, p. 3). Nurses in America, and across the globe have a key role in helping to eliminate, and minimize adverse effects of these conditions
This paper explores the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on motor development. With this topic, came many questions. They are: Is every child effected the same amount, or does it depends on how much the mother drank and how much the fetus was exposed to?, Is there anything the mother can do to reverse the effects of exposure, or perhaps lessen the damage on the child?, Is there a safe amount of alcohol that can be consumed without harm?, And lastly, do the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure ever go away? Coles et al. (2015) and Lucas et al. (2016) suggest answers and evidence to these questions. This paper explains what happens when a fetus is exposed to alcohol, and how it
Alcoholism is a real threat to pregnant women. In particular, there is a huge rise in Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) cases, which is when an unborn fetus actually becomes addicted to and dependent on alcohol passed from the mother. In 1996, only 0.5 to 3.0 cases were confirmed for every 1,000 pregnancies, but today, that number is a staggering 20 to 50 cases per 1,000
As a result of pregnant women drinking, there have been a profuse amount of children born with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Armstrong and Abel confirm that it wasn’t until 1973
The term “Fetal Alcohol Spectrum disorders” (FASDS) is used to describe the numerous problems associated with exposure to alcohol before birth. Each year in the United States, up to 40,000 babies are born with “Fetal Alcohol Spectrum disorders” (FASDs) (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration). Additionally, Fetal Alcohol Spectrum disorders (FASDs) comes with effects that range from mild to severe. These effects include mental retardation; learning, emotional and behavioral problems; and defects involving the heart, face and other organs. According to the U.S. Surgeon General, the patterns of drinking that place a baby at greatest risk for FASDS are binge drinking and drinking seven or more drinks per week (Surgeon General). However, FASDS can occur in babies of women who drink less. There is no way of measuring how much alcohol one can consume before defects occur, and no proof that small amounts of alcohol are safe. As little as one drink a day can cause a baby some degree of harm and interfere with their normal development.
The fetus is not the only one harmed by alcohol consumption during pregnancy, but the mother is as well. In fact, many doctors urge women who think they are pregnant or are trying to get pregnant to stop drinking (“Fetal Alcohol”). “One percent of all mothers consume fourteen or more drinks per week during the three months before pregnancy” (Walsh 3). To the average person one percent is not too large of a proportion. However, the volume of alcohol consumed is high during
As stated earlier, alcohol has its greatest effect on the developing embryo during the first trimester of pregnancy with its teratogenic effect causing mental retardation as well as characteristic craniofacial abnormalities that are characteristic of the disease. It has also been demonstrated with experimental animal models that there is a clear "dose-response" effect between the amount of alcohol consumed by the mother and the risk that is associated with developing FAS symptoms (Walpole, p. 875). It has been proposed by Walpole and associates that there are various degrees to which the fetus An be effected. Walpole uses the term "fetal alcohol syndrome" to refer to serious effects due to heavy maternal drinking and "fetal alcohol effect" to refer to those effects thought to occur with lower maternal alcohol intake (Walpole, p. 875). Regardless of the degree to which
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) refers to a group of physical and mental birth defects resulting from a women’s drinking alcohol heavily or at crucial stages during pregnancy. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome was first named and treated in the late 1960's. This condition results from the toxic effect of alcohol and its chemical factors on the developing fetus. FAS is the leading cause of mental retardation occurring in 1 out of every 750 births. The frequency of FAS occurs about 1.9 times out of every 1000 births according to the latest figures, and minor effects can be seen in up to 20% of pregnancies per year. This number changes drastically for women who are clearly alcoholics. As high as 29 children out of every 1000 births will suffer from FAS
Based on the data of Samuels and other medical researchers, it becomes clear that less than 0.1% of all birth defects are related to alcohol, and that more than 90% of the affected children are born to women with a history of alcohol
Even a small amount of alcohol has the potential to hurt the child. The unborn child of a person who occasionally drinks is at risk of receiving fetal alcohol effects. This condition causes children to receive some of the same of the same effects that come from fetal alcohol syndrome. A child may not receive any of these conditions due to a mother’s alcohol consumption, but there are still some potential effects. Evidence shows that when a pregnant mother consumes an average of two alcoholic beverages per day, her child may have a lower amount of intelligence and is also at risk for having mental retardation. Also, there is research that suggests that even low quantities of alcohol consumed during pregnancy can have contrary effects on the child’s behavioral and psychological functions, and can cause a child to exhibit behaviors such as hyperactivity, unusual nervousness or anxiety, and poor impulse control. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can also cause children to have less accuracy in their spatial and visual reasoning later in their lives. Due to these results, Sarah should be advised to not drink alcohol while she is
Alcohol is a substance that should be consumed in moderation, and should be used responsibly. Similar to any substance, there are consequences that come with the irresponsible and abusive use of it. Not only the drinker is affected by alcohol abuse. People around them including family, friends, potential offspring and even Canada’s Health Care System are affected too. Specific to the health care system, there is a burden placed on it in regards to Fetal Alcohol Spectrum disorder (FASD) a variety of disorders grouped together as a result of the abuse of alcohol while pregnant. Alcohol abuse is a factor that contributes to health issues that some women endure from engaging in activities such as the consumption of alcohol while pregnant. Thus, Canada’s health care system has to deal with the outcome associated with alcohol-related health problems, specifically, FASD.
The drug abuse menace has been indicated to be one of the leading factors that negatively affect people at whatever stage of life right from the fetus stage to the fully grown baby and the adulthood. Of greater interest in this case is the persistent and ever increasing abuse of alcohol among other substances among pregnant women and teenagers in particular. There are repercussions that come with the alcohol abuse and there is therefore need to get to the root of how the menace can be controlled.
New Zealand’s society has become more tolerant to regular alcohol consumption, which results to the increasing rate of women, especially young women who drinks alcohol while they’re pregnant. If a woman doesn’t know that she is pregnant, or is pregnant, or trying to get pregnant, it can result to various pregnancy issues like miscarriage, and the baby born with a range of lifelong effects and even death. A child who was exposed to alcohol during pregnancy can result psychological, behavioural and numerous physical disorders such as premature birth, growth retardation and brain damage. The term used to describe the range of effects that can occur is called, foetal alcohol spectrum disorders or FASD and it is estimated that between 600 and 3,000 New Zealand babies are born every year with this conditions. (Health Promotion Agency, 2015).
Children can be subjected to the negative effects of parental substance use in a variety of different ways. For example, substance use during pregancy can cause detrimental outcomes for newborn infants by placing them at a higher risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), being born with birth defects, developing behavioral and developmental delays, being born premature, etc. Children with addicted parents, are placed at a higher risk of: lacking appropriate supervision; lacking basic needs such as: food, clothing, housing, and medical care; exposure to violence; developing substance abuse issues themselves.