Child and Adolescent Psychology Essay

1348 Words 6 Pages
This essay will focus on the understanding of depression among children during the ages of early childhood (2-6) and adolescent (12-18) through the Brofenbrenner Ecological Systems theory. This theory looks at a child’s development within the perspective of the system of relationships that form their environment. Here you will find a description on the impact of family, school, community and other systems, according to Brofenbrenner, have on their lives. This will also show the influence of the attachment theory and how it interacts with the causes of depression which can occur amongst early childhood and adolescents. Urie Brofenbrenner has uniqueness to his theory, “stressing the need to understand development in terms of the everyday …show more content…
Examples are expectations within the family, the child’s teacher and parent connection, or a child with divorced parents living in separate neighborhoods may have an impact on the types of relationships established amongst peers (Bukatlo, D. 2008). The Exosystem is the layer which defines the larger social system in which the child does not function directly. The structures in this layer impact the child’s development by interacting with some structure in their microsystem (Berk, 2000 as cited in Paquette & Ryan, 2001). For example a parent’s workplace, although the child does not have direct involvement within this structure they may however, feel a positive or negative impact from it. The Macrosystem is the layer which is considered the farthest removed in the child environment however; it is comprised of cultural values, customs, and laws. There is a cascading influence throughout all of the other layers as a result of these personal, ethical, and moral beliefs. And finally the Chronosystem, this layer encompasses the dimension of time as it relates to a child’s environments. Elements within this system can be either external, such as the timing of a parent’s death, or internal, such as the physiological changes that occur with the aging of a child (Paquette & Ryan, 2001). As a child develops they have a stronger capability to determine how environmental changes will directly influence them. Depression involves the mind and the body
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