Autism has been deeply researched and analyzed in the journal articles, and there are various important aspects of the condition that stand out. Regarding this, though the condition affects a small proportion of the population, understanding it is an effective way of helping its patients and the people around them. Autism affects a person's judgment and perception as well as the relationship aspect. Autistic children have difficulty establishing and maintaining relationships with normal children (Barbares, William, Slavica, and Robert, 2006). At times, the children feel neglected and cannot help feeling lesser persons due to their inability. However, it has been noted that it is possible to help children with autism learn how to live positively
Autism is a spectrum disorder with a wide range of symptoms and degrees of impairment. A person with autism lives for the most part in an isolated world unaware of the impact their behavior has on the immediate environment. Even though some may be high functioning, the majority (around 70-75%) has some amount of associated learning disabilities and about 50% score below 50 on the IQ scale. When there are profound cognitive impairments, adequate speech development is not likely, and additionally the incidence of aberrant behavior increases (Howlin, 1996). Aberrant behaviors are behavioral excesses that interfere with interaction opportunities within an individual’s environment (Matson, et al., 1996). Another high impacting area of deficiency is socialization skills. This area includes decreased responding to verbal initiations of others, inappropriate affect or facial expression during communicative interactions, eye contact and preservation on the same topic even when cues are given by the partner for a topic shift (Koegel, & Frea, 1993). Social skill impairment has some relation to the language impairment. Expressive and receptive language difficulties occur in a high percentage of autistic individuals. Difficulties in expressing thoughts and ideas can lead to outbursts of anxiety, aggression, and self-injurious behavior in those with low ability and therefore it is often incorporated into treatment approaches for
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD / autism) are a group of disorders referred to as "developmental disabilities" and the result for children afflicted with ASD is "significant social, communication and behavioral changes" (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC). In short, children with ASD simply deal with their brain's information in ways apart from others around them. The CDC information explains that autism can afflict a child in a very "mild" way or in a "sever" way as well. Many of the symptoms are typically shared by all children with autism, and among those shared symptoms having to do with social interaction; children with autism struggle to have normal social interaction with others. The differences in how autism manifests itself in a child and how it starts can be dramatic. This paper reviews the physical, social, and cognitive aspects of autism in children, and relates two developmental theories to the literature on autism.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be portrayed toward critical impairments in social interaction. It also includes restricted repeated behaviors, interests and activities. (Mayo Clinic staff, 2014)
Many of us have heard about Autism, also knows as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Some have a family member, a friend, or know someone who has ASD. Increasingly it is becoming a more common disability. “Autism is one of the fastest-growing developmental disorders in the U.S” (Autism Speaks). Autism has no respect for gender, race, social class and or ethnicity. “Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder that involves abnormal development and function of the brain.” (Autism Center of Excellence) People who have autism have a lot of difficulties with social skills, communication and also will develop behavior issues. These behavior problems of an individual with autism can vary at times and can go from mild to severe. According to the Autism Science Foundation it says,” Many people with the Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) also have unusual ways of learning, paying attention, and reacting to different sensations. The thinking and learning abilities of people with ASD can vary—from gifted to severely challenged.” The causes and symptoms, as well as the diagnosis, and the treatments of autism vary.
Autism is a developmental disorder, which is characterized by a dyad of difficulties in a) communication and social interaction and b) restricted interests and imagination (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Individuals on the Autism Spectrum might find it challenging to understand what other people think or what the reasons for their behaviours are, as their ‘theory of mind’ may not be well developed (Schuwerk, Vuori & Sodian, 2015). It is possible that this is why they might behave in socially inappropriate ways, being unable to differentiate between different contexts, while they might also find it difficult to make friends. Moreover, it is likely that they are fond of routines, repetition and structure (Carnahan, Musti-Rao, & Bailey, 2009), as they might be nervous with unknown, new situations. In addition, some of them might not do eye contact with other people, whereas some others might not endure to be touched and might have a difficulty developing speech (Jordan, 2005). Individuals on the Autism Spectrum might sometimes be prohibited to initiate conversations and might struggle with finding different ways to play and behave, due to the possible deficit of imagination, which in some cases might result in them having a narrow sphere of interests. Nevertheless, it should be noted that this group of people is rather heterogeneous, as characteristics of autism may differ from one individual to another (Gwynette, 2013). Another point is that people with Autism
A large number of children with non-verbal autistic disorders lack meaningful spoken language. It is clear that some children develop spoken language that is comparable to their typical peers, while some of them are not likely to develop any meaningful spoken language at all. In some cases, early diagnosis and use of advanced treatment for this condition has seen an increase in the rate of children with non-verbal autistic disorders who develop spoken language. However, despite the increased number of such interventions, it is clear that there are many children who are still suffering from non-verbal autistic disorders, and require alternative intervention measures such as play that may work better for
Autism is categorized by deﬁcits in maintaining social relationships and difficulty communicating. The number of children being diagnosed with autism is steadily increasing. Therefore the need incorporate effective interventions that focus on the development of the individual child has become an imperative component for their success. The key for children with Autism to achieve academic and social success depends upon the collaborative effort that is shared among all parties involved: family, teachers, peers; mental health professionals and the community.
In this paper, I will be discussing the disorder of Autism, a sever disorder that affects the function of the brain. It causes problems in such areas as social contact, intelligence, language and speech impediments, along with ritualistic or compulsive behaviors, as well as different responses to the environment that an autistic individual may have different than individuals not having autism would exhibit. I will be discussing generally about the history and description of autism. Also I will be discussing the charactistics that mark an autistic individual, the actual treatment that an autistic person may receive, risk factors that an autistic person may encounter, and interventions/treatments activities that an individual who has autism may take part in. I feel that by doing all of this that I will gain a greater sense of understanding for individuals with autism. I will be giving this information to you by going through each topic that I have outlined in the introduction and explaining what each means and how they affect an individual with autism.
The condition, “Autism Spectrum Disorder(A.S.D.)” is now seen as an epidemic in the present evolved society. Oxford Living Dictionary defines autism as “A developmental disorder of variable severity that is characterized by difficulty in social interaction and communication and by restricted or repetitive patterns of thought and behavior.” (Oxford Living Dictionary) The dictionary is in total concordance with the American Psychiatry Association, as it is clearly implied that autism is a mental illness. The prospect of this research is to let in on the symptoms of autism, the reasons why it is not a total disadvantage and how to cultivate the best traits in autistic children.
Social interaction is defined as “a process of reciprocal stimulation and response between two people. It develops competition, interaction, influences social roles and status, and influences people in development of social relationships.” (What is SOCIAL INTERACTION) By adolescence most individuals are fairly competent at social interaction and have a general understanding of what is required of them in most social situations. For high functioning autistic children, this is far from the case. Simple interactions between themselves and others can be confusing and difficult to navigate without proper adaptive training in social behavior. In the following sections, we will explain the need for this training, how it is implemented, and the
Seeing the two children with Asperger’s really gave me insight into how they live. Through the interviews I got to see how they act, how they speak and I learned about their likes and dislikes. The children seem to be obsessed with things and then really hate other things. Like if they like something they really like it and if they dislike something, they really dislike it. I view the obsession as passion. The young boy seemed really passionate about selling things and making money while the girl seemed passionate about the Japanese things that she mentioned in her interview. At the beginning of the video the narrator introduced the disorder and some of the symptoms. From seeing the children, you were able to identify their symptoms really
These interventions can include social stories, peer-mediated strategies, and cognitive behavioral training, among a few others. A growing body of literature has reported the growth and success of peer-mediated programs, to increase the social interactions of children with autism. One study has taught peers to use different strategies to increase the participation of autistic children in different play activities. The peer training included scripts and role-playing of establishing attention, commenting on activities, acknowledging their partner's communication such as requesting information, action or attention, responding, and nonverbal social behaviors (Kamps 1997). During play sessions, the adult prompted peers to use the strategies, and praised peers and target students for interactions, resulting in improved interaction for four of five students with autism (Kamps 1997). Others have focused on the behaviors of the target children towards peers including social skills, peer modeling, and tutoring programs. Visual cuing systems have also shown positive increases in social and communicative behaviors including script-fading procedures, communication books and activity schedules, and written cue cards. (Licciardello 2008) has identified three approaches to social skills training. One group of procedures includes arranging interpersonal situations to encourage peer interactions, such as peer-buddy dyads, integrated playgroups, and peer tutoring sessions. Another intervention approach would include having peers increase their social initiations towards the child with autism, facilitating interaction by building school-based peer networks, and implementing response training. Finally, prompting children with autism to initiate social interactions with peers has been effectively
Individuals with autism demonstrate delays or deficits in social interaction and behaviours. Autism is apparent from early childhood, but can emerge in early adulthood. It is associated with a wide range of possible causes, but genetic factors are the main causes. Children with autism have impairments in cognition, language delays, and lack of or poor social interactions. Lack of communication may force these children to adopt repetitive behaviours such as self-inflicted injuries and violence. The teaching process requires interventions that address the repetitive behaviours, skill development, and play
Autism is known as a complex developmental disability. Experts believe that autism presents itself during the first three years of a person's life. The condition is the result of a neurological disorder that has an effect on normal brain function, affecting development of the person's communication and social interaction skills. People with autism have issues with non-verbal communication, a wide range of social interactions, and activities that include an element of play or banter. “Today, it is estimated that one in every 110 children is diagnosed with autism, making it more common than childhood cancer, juvenile diabetes and pediatric AIDS combined” (What is Autism