Children 's Immune System For Disease Control And Prevention

1992 Words Nov 16th, 2014 8 Pages
Immunization remains one of the most effective methods to prevent the spread of pathogens among human populations (Orenstein, Paulson, Brady, Cooper, & Seib, 2013). It seeks to pre-emptively expose a host body 's immune system to harmful pathogens which it would otherwise encounter in the wild, and thus provide immunity without infection (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014). Under normal circumstances a pathogen would infect the host, and proceed to impair the host 's vital functions. In most cases this triggers an immunological response where by non-specific lymphocytes, such as T-cells or natural killer cells recognize an infiltrate and proceed to kill and remove the disease (Fearon & Locksley, 1996). The secondary or adaptive phase of this response involves the infectious agent being presented to a selection of B lymphocytes - possessing increased specificity to a single pathogen - who upon recognizing protein markers on the pathogen in question, multiply and spread, effectively eliminating all trace of the disease in the host (Whiteside, 2010). Once the infection is resolved and the host is recovered, many of these B-cells undergo apoptosis and die, but a small number remain as lymphatic memory cells, stored in the peripheral immune system in order to react quickly should reinfection occur, essentially preventing the pathogen from ever successfully spreading. In some cases however, the pathogen is either too virulent, overwhelming the host 's immune…
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