Children's Psychological Adjustment to Entry into Kindergarten

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Children's Psychological Adjustment to Entry into Kindergarten

From an ecological perspective, early childhood development occurs within the multiple contexts of the home, the school, and the neighborhood, and aspects of these environments can contribute to the development of adjustment problems (Bronfenbrenner, 1979). A child’s psychological adjustment to entry into school for the first time can have a significant impact on the level of success achieved later in life. Children rated higher in school adjustment by their elementary school teachers, as a result of improved cognitive development, showed positive attitudes toward school resulting in better school performance which lead to higher educational attainment and lower
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Reynolds studies in 1996. Reynolds investigated the effects of preschool intervention versus school achievement in the sixth grade. Because of cognitive readiness at kindergarten entry due to preschool, children in the sixth grade showed significantly higher reading and math achievement with a lower incidence of grade retention. Evidence suggests that early school adjustment is positively associated with parental education, socioeconomic status, and children’s ethnicity (Ladd, 1987; Reynolds, 1991). These environmental entry factors are relative to the challenges of school and influence early adaptation. Parental education and income may afford advantages that lead to cognitive maturity prior to entry into kindergarten. A low socioeconomic status may produce increased stress in a family as well as diminished resources, and may influence the child through parenting practices and lack of warmth and acceptance. In American society, certain ethnic minorities have increased risk to psychological problems due to race discrimination and prejudice. This results in a higher amount of behavioral problems and lower academic achievement. These environmental entry factors effect a child’s psychological adjustment indirectly due to the many contributing factors to be considered. The socioeconomic status includes many demographic factors including: single parent families or larger families which mean decreased attention toward the child, amount of income or
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