China has changed in certain ways and remained the same in others from the early Golden Ages to the late 1900s. China has experienced a series of cultural and political transformations, shaping the lives of many Chinese citizens. Culturally, the country’s art and literature hardly changed for almost eight hundred years. Along with their culture, China remained politically the same from the beginning of the Golden Ages all the way until the 1800s. On the other hand, China’s government and society were restructured after new leaders took over. From a monarch to total communism, China’s society had a multitude of new ideas and policies they had to adapt to.
"Slowly, a new social and political hierarchy emerged, with scholars at the top, followed by farmers, artisans, and merchants" (Spodek 215). Confucian principles influenced many aspects of the culture, including government, education, commerce, and the justice system. Not only did Confucianism influence how the Chinese society operated, there was a strong emphasis placed on documenting history. This transformation took place mainly due to more people being educated in Confucianism and changing of leadership roles based on the worth and abilities of the
With China united, Qin became the first emperor of United China (China) and created the Qin dynasty, surpassing the long-lasting and powerful Zhou dynasty. He then established his own form of government. He removed Feudalism, where the people had to listen to the nobles. Instead, he split his empire into 36 provinces, each one having two government officials
As centuries pass, historians are still able to remember the achievements attained by the first emperor of unified China. Although known as a ruthless ruler, we can acknowledge that the successes he had were lasting and helpful for the future of China. Qin Shi Huang became the first emperor of China at 220 BCE after his uncle passed the throne onto him and founded the Qin Dynasty. During this time period, China was divided into many kingdoms. Qin’s main goal in life was to unify China under his rule. In order to do so, he waged war against the other six major kingdoms. By 221 BCE, he was able to unify China under his rule. It was the first time that China became unified. Qin Shi Huang was able to create a large impact on China’s history due to the starting the idea of the Great Wall, developing a system of writing, and the unification of China.
The Qin and the Han are two equally important dynasties that greatly expanded in their reign, although both the Qin and the Han had its own ideas on expansion. In fifteen years, the Qin Dynasty united the seven warring states. Emperor Qin’s rule resulted in the isolation of China from foreigners and brought upon strict rules and the removal of freedom. Under Emperor Qin’s rule, any action people took which angered the ruler could result in harsh punishment. Consequently, people were unhappy and often suffered from poverty. On the other hand, The Han dynasty lasted 426 years and managed to conquer more land, which gradually expanded and formed what China now is today. While isolation from the outside world was still present
The goals of Deng Xiaoping’s economic reform were the ‘Four Modernizations’. This Four Modernization refers to the reform of agriculture, industry, national defense, and science technology. These reforms were to solve the problems of motivating workers and farmers to produce a larger surplus and to eliminate economic imbalances that were common in command economies.
Before the Qin Dynasty, China was composed of a network of city states that were loyal to the Chinese king. The seven Warring States had their own institutions that were run by aristocrats. The Qin Dynasty took initiative to expand their territory and to unite the Chinese empire together. Through their ruthless military techniques the Qin Dynasty was able to conquer the city states in China. The Qin Dynasty ruled from 221 BCE – 206 BCE; during their regime, Emperor Qin’s primary goal was to unify the Chinese people. Even though the Qin Dynasty was a short-lived empire, it played a major role in unifying the Chinese empire and provided a foundation for succeeding regimes through a centralized government, standardized systems, and through infrastructure.
during the Zhou Dynasty, China was experiencing a great deal of political turmoil. A major part of this era was called the Period of the Warring States. It was a time when there were numerous wars that occurred due to the conflict that existed between seven states. (Watkins, 2013) These warring states were the Han, Wu, Zhao, Chu, Qi, Yan and Jin. According to Jerry H. Bentley and Herbert F. Ziegler of the book Traditions and Encounters, “This period forced some people to reflect on the nature of society, and the roles of humans beings within society.” The authors continued saying that it forced others to “identify principles that would restore political and social order.” (Bentley & Ziegler, 2011) The principles of Confucianism were established and followed in order to help the citizens of China to live and govern their communities more efficiently. Through Confucianism, Confucius helped legitimize China’s rule and bring about order in the mist of turmoil. The effects of Confucius’ principles are still seen and felt today in many aspects of modern day Chinese society. Veritably, there were points throughout Chinese history where Confucianism affected almost every aspect of life in China. Confucius has impacted the development of Chinese thought and culture in various ways from education to politics, to familial relationships.
As an uniformed China was his ultimate goal, he standardized currency, weight, measures, and writing script. He was able to construct a highway system and repair The Great Wall. Legalism also helped build a strong army, an efficient bureaucracy, a compliant populace, and showed the importance of a strong central government. Ultimately though, the harshness of Legalism is what killed the Qin empire. Thousands who fled from punishment under the Qin Dynasty revolted after King Zheng’s and his heirs deaths. Army generals defected and former nobles raised armies. Eventually, a man of modest background, Liu Bang, became the new emperor of
From warring states to an empire, China experienced a drastic change in restoring the civilization through different dynasties and rulers. The unity China wanted was non-existent during the age of the warring states as there were rivalries between the seven competing kingdoms. Shihuangdi of the state of Qin tried to reunify China through Legalism and launching a military campaign. After the collapse of Shihuangdi’s brutal policies, China switched over to the milder and moralistic rule of the Han dynasty that followed. To try and restore China into something great, the people underwent changes to find a solution that would end the disorder. Likewise, Rome also experienced a change in its civilization from city-state to empire through its way of ruling. Although each civilization targeted a different way to build up their empire, both China and Rome
The Qin dynasty collapsed after 15 years because Qin was cruel and to his people which caused dissatisfaction. After he died Hu Hai took over for Qin. The peasants then led a uprising. Winning over the dynasty.
In 221 BC, emperor Qin Shi Huang began the unification of China which was also known as the period of the Qin Dynasty. He ended 500 years of political fragmentation and warfare. In order to establish such a great empire, Qin Shi Huang did plenty in order to keep organized and have his empire run smoothly. He created reforms in areas such as government, economy, and construction. Qin Shi Huang had to assure a stable government was in order for his empire to function properly. A key component to the unification of China also derived from its economy. The creation of a common currency system benefitted China into running smoother as well. Lastly, Qin Shi Huang made improvements to the foundations of construction in China by adding the Great Wall of China. Although not all of his changes went well as he anticipated, Emperor Qin Shi Huang was able to keep his empire for fourteen years with these improvements he made.
Qin Shi Huangdi, the first Qin emperor, was an ambitious emperor who implemented a central bureaucratic system that oversaw the evolution and unification of China at the cost of public sentiment. The Qin Dynasty is considered to be among the most influential dynasties as it laid the foundation for the massive cultural and economic development of China that took place during the Han Dynasty, but it also failed to achieve many of its pro-commoner ideological goals. In fact, socioeconomic disparity was not alleviated and despite the notion of enriching the lives of the common people, it was under Qin rule in which public resentment of the authoritarian government peaked as there were countless peasant revolts against the iron-handed bureaucratic rule of the Qin. Because a paranoid emperor alone wielded political clout and influence, the tumultuous few years of Qin reign was rife with paranoia and suspicion among the masses. Although the Qin Dynasty is seldom thought to possess the same glaring discrepancy between ideology and state that the Communist regime in post-World War II China had, the failure of the flawless egalitarian state models in socioeconomic and political aspects during the Qin Dynasty mirrored the developments in early Communist China.
The unification of China was under the dynasties Qin and Han. There were formed schools of thought called Confucians, Daoists, and Legalists. These school of thoughts worked to bring political and social stability to China during the rule of the late Zhou dynasty which were chaotic years. Legalist principles and imposed centralized imperial rule were adopted by rulers of the Qin and Han dynasties. Political stability was the foundation of economic prosperity for the Han dynasty. There was a search of political and social order, unification of China, and a transition from economic prosperity to social disorder.
Within the years of 221-206 BCE, the Qin Dynasty rose as a superpower. During this time period, the Warring States Era, Chinese civilization was impacted tremendously in almost every aspect. These hallmarks in history vary from the spreading of Legalism to the birth of the Great Wall of China. Through these countless contributions, the Qin Dynasty was able to revolutionize the Chinese civilization in such a short period of time.