China 's Recent Urban Planning

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Study Context and Data Sources
2.1 Beijing’s Recent Urban Planning
Beijing is the capital of China and one of the most populous cities in the world. The current population as of 2014 was over 21 million. The area of Beijing Metropolitan Area (BMA) is 16,410 square kilometers. According to land use dataset of Beijing Institute of City Planning, the total urban area as of 2012 was 1,675 square kilometers. The BMA currently comprises 16 administrative subdivisions, as presented in Figure 1.
Figure 1 The Beijing Metropolitan Area Since the latest administrative boundary adjustment of Beijing in 1958, there have been five urban master plans drafted in 1958, 1973, 1982, 1992 and 2004. Each master plan was associated with a planned overall land use map. Individual land parcels in the map were assigned with a land classification of either urban (residential, commercial, industrial, public green land, and mixed-use land) or non-urban (farmland, forestland, and wetland) (Long, Gu, & Han, 2012). The maps guide the future urban development, and actual land uses should conform to the land classification plan.
Since the beginning of the 1990s, the BMA has experienced an unprecedented increase in population growth and urban development. By the year 2003, Beijing’s population and urban built-up area had already surpassed the capacity set forth in the 1992 -2010 Master Plan, seven years ahead of the plan’s scheduled expiration date. To address new challenges and plan for greater
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