Cholera Is On The Rise With An Population

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Cholera is on the rise with an estimated 1.4 billion people at risk in endemic countries and an estimated 3 million to 5 million cases and 100,000-120,000 deaths per year worldwide. In many endemic countries, children under 5 account for more than half of the global incidence and deaths. Cholera has remained endemic in some Asian countries for centuries, has become endemic in an increasing number of African countries with epidemics throughout the years, and has recently returned to the Americas with on-going transmission in Haiti and the Dominican Republic. New, more virulent and drug-resistant strains of Vibrio cholerae continue to emerge, and the frequency of large protracted outbreaks with high case fatality ratios has increased, reflecting the lack of early detection, prevention and access to timely health care. Vibrio cholerae, a member of the family Vibrionaceae, is a facultatively anaerobic, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming curved rod, about 1.4–2.6mm long, capable of respiratory and fermentative metabolism; it is well defined on the basis of biochemical tests and DNA homology studies . The bacterium is oxidase-positive, reduces nitrate, and is motile by means of a single, sheathed, polar flagellum. Growth of V. cholerae is stimulated by addition of 1% sodium chloride (NaCl). However, an important distinction from other Vibrio spp is the ability of V. cholerae to grow in nutrient broth without added NaCl. In the scientific classification established by Carl von
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