Cholera Symptoms, Causes, Vaccine, Treatment and History

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Produced by the bacteria, vibrio cholerae that creates a toxin that affects the absorption of water in the small intestine, Cholera is an infectious disease. The majority of the bacteria is wiped out by gastric acid when ingested, while the surviving bacteria settle in the small intestine and begin making the toxin that produces the symptoms of Cholera. The toxin created by the bacteria, Vibrio Cholerae, is a exotoxin. Vibrio Cholerae is a member of the Vibrionaceae family of curved gram-negative rods. They are found in coastal waters and estuaries, and tend to grow best in the company of salt. However, they can develope in lower salinity when it is warmer and contains sufficient organic materials. (Harris, LaRocque, Qadri, Ryan,…show more content…
The diarrhea fluid is often brimming with comma-shaped bacteria. The definitive diagnosis is made by confinement of the bacteria from the diarrhea on a selective medium thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts agar (TCBS). (Davis/2012). "Cholera cots" also used to diagnose cholera measures the volume of stool loss and fluid replacement needs. Also identifying the bacteria in stool sample can diagnose cholera. (Normandin, 2012)
Risk and Outbreaks Everyone who drinks or eats food that has not been treated to eliminate V. cholerae is at risk, exclusively in parts of the world where cholera is present. The CDC says in cognizance to cholera risk as of November 2010, "There has been an ongoing global pandemic in Asia, Africa (recently in Zimbabwe in 2008-2009), and Latin America for the last four decades." When there are catastrophes or other reasons for a lack of sanitary human waste removal and the lack of safe fluids and foods for people to consume, outbreaks arise. Haiti had an outbreak in 2010 after a devastating earthquake destroyed the sanitary facilities and water and food treatment facilities for many Haitians. Haiti had not a seen a cholera outbreak in over 50 years. The bacteria eventually corrupted primary water sources, resulting in over 530,000 people diagnosed with cholera. The

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