Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease ( Copd )

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According to Gold Expert Panel (2003) Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a slowly progressive disorder characterized by airflow obstruction that is not fully reversible. COPD is also known as an Exacerbation where it is frequently linked to lung infection that caused by a virus or bacteria. In addition, it is often a combination of Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema which can mainly result altogether in coughing, wheezing, chest tightness, shortness of breath and other symptoms. However Tobacco is the first and foremost casual risk factor for COPD (Soraino.J, Brusasco.A & Xuan.D, 2011) whereas no cure is found but can be managed the progression and symptoms. COPD is mainly treated by pulmonary rehabilitation, medicines and oxygen therapy which minimizes the complications and prevent further damage. This is reflected in Mrs Walker who is a sufferer of COPD and undergoing with an intensive medical treatment. This essay will first examine the pathophysiology and possible causes and risk factors of COPD. Secondly clinical manifestations of COPD and Walker’s physical assessment results will be discussed. Next, a holistic nursing care plan using NANDA diagnosis will be developed. Finally the medications which are used for COPD and their actions related to COPD will be addressed respectively. Pathophysiology of COPD can be described as a complex syndrome of physical changes that comprised of airway inflammation, mucociliary dysfunction and consequent airway structural
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