Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease ( Copd )

1541 Words7 Pages
“Tens of millions of people around the world find it distressingly difficult to breathe owing to a combination of emphysema and chronic asthmatic bronchitis – a deadly duo known as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (Brody, 2012).” The overall disease-state, role of exercise, treatments, and implications are all interrelated when improving patient COPD. Throughout this paper, all will be addressed with the goal to better the understanding of COPD. COPD is becoming prevalent disease within today’s society, ranking as the fourth leading cause of death in the United States and Europe (Kaufman, 2013). It is defined as a: preventable and treatable disease with some significant extrapulonary effects that may contribute to the severity…show more content…
The most significant risk factor is cigarette smoking. Succeeding factors include, “occupational exposure to dust, chemical agents and fumes, and air pollution.” Occupations with increased prevalence of COPD include: coal and hard rock mining; construction; farming; transportation; plastic, concrete, textiles, rubber and food product manufacturing; and foundry working. There has also been found to be a genetic link between individuals and COPD. This genetic link is found to be associated with the deficiency of glycoprotein alpha 1-antitrypsin. The function of glycoprotein alpha 1-antitrypsin is to help “protect lung tissue from the enzymes produced by inflammatory cells.” Testing individuals’ glycoprotein alpha 1-antitrypsin is crucial in treatment and management of COPD, however, it is only found in 1-2% of patients (Kaufman, 2013). In regards to chronic bronchitis and emphysema, the pathophysiological changes are the “chronic inflammation and small airways, resulting in reduced airflow and gradual destruction of the alveoli.” In patients with chronic bronchitis, the epithelial lining of the airways becomes chronically inflamed and can peel away. The mucus-secreting cells in the large airways multiply and expand in number and size, increasing the viscosity and production of the mucus. The cilia are destroyed and the ability of the lungs to remove mucus is impaired. The cilia are the minute hairs that line the airways. Their function is to “carry
Open Document