An Annotated Bibliography Wagner, Heather Lehr. “The Health Effects of Nicotine and Smoking.” Nicotine, Chelsea House Publishers, Philadelphia, 2003, pp. 44–59, Print. As reported by Heather’s, Nicotine contains a large amount of toxic substance which can lead to several causes and effects to health. The substances in nicotine effects on the brain and its addicted. When a person smokes, the nicotine substance travels to the brain within 10 seconds and changes the function of the brain. “Blood that enters the lungs to picks up oxygen also pickup something else – the nicotine”. It also rises the blood pressure by five to ten points and heart rate by ten to twenty beats per minute. However, nicotine also performs as a sense of feeling of pleasure. Nicotine reaches to brain within a speedy rate and disperses soon conversely, its increases use of cigarettes.
According to the article, Too Hot to Be Safe, electronic cigarettes are just as dangerous as the regular cigarettes. The heat that heats the liquid nicotine is what makes the electronic cigarettes just as bad. Chemical damages also occur due to the heating of the liquid nicotine. The electronic cigarettes consist of carcinogens, which reacts the same way tobacco does in regular cigarettes.
Beginning in 2009, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulated tobacco regarding roll-your-own, smokeless, and cigarettes. However, the times have changed and new innovations have arisen over the years since. A ruling that became effective on August 8th, 2016 by the FDA decided to regulate any tobacco product, including electric nicotine delivery systems. An electronic cigarette, or e-cigarette, is a part of the electronic nicotine delivery system that was effected.
To understand the current culture of smoking at Wilkes University, research about smoking among college students was analyzed, a survey was given to the University body, and a national smoke-free day was held to promote a wave of change towards a smoke-free campus culture. During the Fall 2015 semester, the well-being of Wilkes University was improved with the establishment of a smoking policy. The health problems associated with smoking are reasons why establishing policies on college campuses are necessary.It is no secret that smoking tobacco can harm nearly every organ in the body. Specifically, smoking tobacco can cause autoimmune diseases, affect bone density, harm blood cells and damage the function of the heart. It can also negatively
Fiore, M., & Baker, T. (2015). Reduced-Nicotine Cigarettes--A Promising Regulatory Pathway. New England Journal Of Medicine,373(14), 1289-1291. doi:10.1056/NEJMp1509510
It is well known that we, as human beings, are creatures of habits, so when it comes to quit smoking we find ourselves in a bit of trouble. But another thing we are good at is social interaction; this means that having someone by us to help us through the transition of becoming non-smokers can make a significant difference. Although there are many methods to help people quit cigarettes, for the ones interested in helping themselves as they help others, support groups are the best idea.
The article is about adolescents using e-cigarettes and how it can double the chance of them smoking actual tobacco in their future. E-cigarettes are devices that allow the user to inhale a type of aerosol colloquially known as vapor. This vapor usually contains nicotine, like a cigarette, but does not produce tar or carbon monoxide, making a lot better than smoking tobacco.
(8). Our preliminary data indicate that alveolar type (ATII) cells isolated from individuals with emphysema have higher nuclear DSBs than control smokers or nonsmokers. Moreover, we observed an increase in mtDNA damage in ATII cells in this disease in comparison with controls. We also found lower XRCC4-like factor (XLF) expression, which is involved in NHEJ pathway (9, 10), in ATII cells in emphysema in comparison with controls. Furthermore, we detected that high oxidative stress induced by exposure to cigarette smoke induces XLF oxidation and localization in mitochondria. DJ-1 is a cytoprotective protein localized in mitochondria. However, we observed that it interacts with XLF in ATII cells in emphysema, which indicates the critical role of XLF/DJ-1 complex in mitochondrial function. In addition, our results suggest that the number of mitochondria is decreased in these cells isolated from emphysema patients in comparison with control smokers and nonsmokers. Our hypothesis is that high levels of ROS in emphysema induce XLF oxidation and mtDNA damage leading to mitophagy and cell death (Fig. 1). Elucidating the molecular mechanisms contributing to mitophagy in primary ATII cells will advance our understanding of the contribution of mitochondria physiology to emphysema development. ATII cells will be isolated from excess tissue obtained from lung transplants of patients with emphysema, Veterans with respiratory problems and from control organ donors
A central idea of this reading is about whether E-cigarettes are safe or not. One important detail is pharmacologists play a key role in testing the E-cigarettes. In the article, it stated that seven different e-cigarettes were tested and chemicals that could cause cancer were found. Their role is to test them and make sure the products are safe. The FDA made it clear that the ingredients in the e-cigarettes are found in actual cigarettes. To answer the question whether they are found safe or unsafe, it’s clear they are unsafe. In conclusion, the pharmacologist's position is to do the testing which pays off and lets the FDA know the results about the
To start off, Dr. Patterson told us about the class experiment where we would be trying to differentiate blindly between Coke and Pepsi. Before starting, Dr. Patterson asked us if there were any students who did not want to participate in the Cola Wars. He then passed out the Cola Wars data collection survey, which is found on page 409 in Conducting Research in Psychology: Measuring the Weight of Smoke, by Brett W. Pelham and Hart Blanton. He instructed us to fill out the top part, which contained survey questions. The experimenter poured soda into 40 shot glass plastic cups behind the screen to keep the participants from seeing. This was done in a randomized assortment. Counterbalancing was used in which the participants were given both variables
I’m not going to lie, at that time, my main problem was girls, and Albert was always open to share his knowledge about them with me. The thing is that I would actually get involved with girls and Albert, the expert, would struggle to keep them around, but that is another story for another time. Bianca, my girlfriend at that time, was my first love. I would go to her house every weekend, but before getting to her place, I would occasionally make a stop at Albert’s house. Sometimes to kill time, other times to smoke a cigarette before taking off to Bianca’s house. Every time, without an exception, before driving away, he would tell me “Hey man, be careful, wear a condom.” The first hundred times I took it as my friend being considerate with me,
Some people feel that our society is moving toward regarding cigarette smoking as deviant. Before determining whether it is true or not, there is a need to define what is deviant. According to the Oxford dictionary (2008), deviant means “different from what most people consider to be normal and acceptable” (p. 547). What does it mean? To tell what is deviant and how to determine if an act is deviant, different scholars would use different approaches, for example: biological, psychological, and sociological. In this paper, I would like to focus on the sociological theories.
Accumulation of DNA damage occurs with increasing age, causing cells to deteriorate and malfunction. While DNA damages incur constantly in cells of living organisms, most of the damages are repaired in healthy individuals. However, some DNA damage accumulate as the DNA polymerases and other repair mechanisms cannot correct defects at a rapid enough pace as the rate of damage. In particular, damage to mitochondrial DNA may lead to mitochondrial dysfunction. Maintenance of metabolic homeostasis along with appropriate stress responses absolutely requires proper mitochondrial function. Mitochondrial dysfunction is known to play a critical role in aging and as well as other numerous human diseases, for example cancer and neurodegenerative disorders
The best known function of mitochondria is the generation of ATP from food sources. Pyruvate, converted from glucose, is consumed by mitochondria to produce ATP. As mitochondria produce ATP, they release reactive oxygen species (ROS) locally that must be detoxified as they can induce oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). This damage results in mutations and deletions of mtDNA. The relative absence of repair enzymes for mtDNA may explain its sensitivity to oxidative stress-induced damage . The 10- to 20-fold higher mutation rate in mitochondrial DNA compared with nuclear DNA is believed to be due to its proximity to ROS generation and the limited DNA repair capacity [9, 10]. As the organism, tissue, and cells age, exposure of the
Cigarette Smoking The effects of cigarette smoking can be horrifying. Smoking is dangerous not only to those who smoke, but to non-smokers and unborn children as well. Cigarette smoking is also physically and socially harming.