Sleep is a complex cycle generated by the brain that consists of 24 hours of regulated wake and sleep stages. This cycle is called the circadian rhythm which is mostly stable, but can be altered by light and individual differences; the individual differences are classified as an either/or dichotomy: you’re a morning person, or you are a not a morning person (Kalat 2013). In normal individuals, sleep is an automatic process; we can fight against it for a while, but eventually the sleep cycle will restore itself, causing the individual to fall asleep at inappropriate times, like during the middle of a lecture, driving down the highway, or while operating heavy machinery. To understand why the circadian rhythm works so hard to stay regulated requires knowledge about the way sleep works and its adaptive
Describe circadian rhythms (8marks) Circadian rhythms occur every 24 hours; an example of a circadian rhythm is the sleep-waking cycle. We are diurnal animals who are active during the daytime and asleep at night, other animals are nocturnal they are active at night but asleep during the day. The circadian rhythm depends on the interaction of physiological and psychological processes to be tuned into the sleep-waking cycle so energy is provided when needed. As diurnal humans we have a fairly stable sleep pattern with the time we go to sleep and the time we wake up, this consistency suggests an internal mechanism controls sleep, endogenous pacemaker. However, this can be overridden by external factors, exogenous zeitgebers.
I generally tend to go to sleep between 11 pm and 12 am, waking up around 8-9 on my own. When I have to be to work early in the morning, I sometimes rely on an alarm but sometimes my body wakes up on its own and usually go to bed around 10 or 11 pm. I wake up a few times throughout the night normally unless I am extremely tired. According to Myers and Dewall, age and experience can alter the circadian rhythm (2016). I have noticed over the last year my sleeping habits have changed quite a bit. I have started to feel tired later at night and go to sleep later as well. I used to go to sleep around 10 pm but now it’s an hour later than before. My house is normally quiet by 10 pm because my family has gone to sleep. Around that time I go to my
Russell Foster is a British professor and a circadian neuroscientist at Brasenose College. He studies the sleep cycles of the brain. He and his group were credited for discovering photosensitive ganglion cells in the mammalian retina. This discovery will help to find more information about the circadian rhythm system. In 1980, Foster graduated from the University of Bristol with a degree in Zoology. He has earned many awards for his work and is also the author of a few books.
Regimented sleep schedule: By sticking with a regimented or strict sleep schedule, your circadian rhythm should adapt. Those with variable sleep schedules may have a circadian rhythm that isn’t aligned with their sleep schedule, thus resulting in all types of physiological chaos. Decreasing this physiological chaos with a good sleep schedule may also reduce the
Seasonal affective disorder is a form of McMahon , et al, 2014). Another factor that can play into S.A.D. is melatonin, which helps with sleep and wake cycles. Rosenthal, et al, notes how the pineal gland, the gland that produces melatonin, will react to dark surroundings with drowsiness that can lead people to being lethargic (as cited in Melrose, 2015). When melatonin increases and serotonin decreases, the offset of the proteins can cause circadian rhythms to be disrupted, which is the bodies “24 hour” clock. Researcher Melrose writes that “…circadian rhythms respond to the rhythmic light-dark changes that occur daily and throughout each of the seasons.” (2015). People with S.A.D. disorder normally find that their circadian rhythms are off beat and timed differently with day lengths, for example feeling tired in the middle of the day while being wide awake or feeling wide awake when it would normally be time to sleep.
Circadian rhythm is another sleep disorder that has to do with our body functions. In this case, our body clocks are off, due an internal change or external factors like a change in time zones or regions where a midnight sun occurs during a 24-hour period. Bright lights in a room have a similar effect on sleep.
In another study involving twelve adult participants between the ages of 18-59 who had a diagnosis of Seasonal Affective Disorder, light therapy was found to help correct the natural melatonin secretion cycle (Rice, Mayor, Tucker, & Bielski, 1995). Melatonin is a hormone secreted at nighttime by the pineal gland, and plays a role in human sleep and wake cycles by aiding the process of sleep.
The production of melatonin is highly dependent on light stimulus received by the retina. Excessive light exposure, both natural and artificial, during the primary hours of melatonin production can lead to a restless night because not enough melatonin is produced by the pineal gland to initiate and maintain healthy sleep patterns. With the use of handheld devices that emit artificial light on the rise, more people are experiencing decreased quality of sleep due to late sleep onset. The introduction of melatonin supplements and ramelteon may be necessary for some individuals in order to return to homeostasis. However, its effectiveness could vary depending on time and amount taken.
Investigating Melatonin’s Chemical Properties and Significance in Health Introduction The purpose of this report is to analyse and discuss the chemical properties of Melatonin, an important organic molecule in the human body. This report will examine Melatonin at a molecular level as it undergoes five organic reactions; substitution, addition, hydrolysis, oxidation and decarboxylation, in addition to the enzymes that catalyze them. Furthermore, this report will dive into the importance of Melatonin in health, expanding on the benefits and risks associated with its use as a supplement.
This is a very interesting subject. Melatonin is secreted by the pineal gland, which is what makes us sleepy. Melatonin is produced when it is dark. In the dark, eggs are protected in women that are fertile and ovulating. The eggs are better preserved and healthier. Women who are already pregnant who do not get enough sleep and have enough time in the dark, are likelier to have children born with ADHD and other behavioral problems. At least 8 hours is recommended for women, especially in the final trimester, to help produce sufficient melatonin. This helps the fetus receive sufficient melatonin which helps his/her biological clock as well as helps the fetus brain.
Although the author is wrong about how does Circadian Rhythms happened and how to prevent it(only for 1 particular way). First of all, the author is wrong about having a dark room can help their kids, this only result in one way is depression since depression is about not interacting with people. In facts, interacting with people by talking, have fun, are ways to help the kids to release their stress at school. Furthermore, if a kid have good social life, he or she should be able to have no reason for getting depress due to their joy and love of life and games, on the contrary, by taking their equipment of having fun, they're more likely to get bored, angry, lonely, and pick on at school for not having a social network life. Therefore I conclude that the reasons that kids having depression is because of the environment and away to prevent it is to create opportunities for kids to talk with someone they feel safe, close or even able to talk with. Someone that they can trust such as a mentor health guider online. The main point of this is to help kids to communicate with someone, if they're can't communicate, that's mean they're not living but rather is creating
Bio 490 Fall 2015 Melatonin directly improves the diurnal patterns seen in humans controlled by human circadian clocks Abstract: Many individuals in our society struggle from lack of sleep from various different problems. In order to understand the reason why this is a problem I examined the circadian clock and how Melatonin fits in the natural “day/night” cycle and affects human sleeping patterns. Various studies using individuals with either insomnia, stressed college students or a history of sleep disorders measured the initial sleep disturbance patterns. The researchers performed double blind studies with both placebo and Melatonin in order to determine whether an external source of Melatonin helped with sleeping patterns to follow
Sleep duration and quality participate in normal metabolism, function of immune system, mood, and cognitive functioning . Short duration of sleep and circadian misalignment are hypothesized to contribute to many problems of health including over weight, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, cardiac disease, mood disorders, cognitive dysfunction, and
Each night without fail our eyes grow heavy and our minds tired, and dreaming we drag ourselves to bed and normally fall asleep quickly and peacefully off to dream land we go. Why is this though? Why do we sleep every night? Why do we awake with dream fresh in our