There are three iconic symbols of the presence of Mexican Americans in the history of the United States: The role of Mexican Americans in the WWII, the Bracero movement, and the Zoot Suit Riot. All three moments provide insight on the participation of Hispanics in the construction of the American society and more importantly, on the way the Mexican American identity has been constructed and on the ways this community has been considered, in general terms, a group of domestic aliens. As a consequence, Mexican Americans have been segregated and denied equal opportunity historically. However, they are here to stay, an Anglos better learn to deal with their presence.
Mexico’s problems originally began upon the arrival of the Spanish in 1492, as illustrated in Major Problems in Mexican American History by Zaragosa Vargas as well as in the video documentary, Chicano!. The sequence of events which date back to the precolonial Spanish days and take place in Mexico’s history eventually provoke the national movement that called for social justice and equality, especially after the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Then came the question of group and individual identity. Those of Mexican heritage were broken up into the groups "Chicanos," which were the ‘Americanized’ Mexicans or the Mexicans born in the United States, and the actual
Mexican American’s are one of the largest ethnic group in America today average of more than half of the populace; nearly reaching more than 30 million in the United States alone. Compassed by these immigrants more than half are here illegally that migrated over to the United States in search of a better living. Moreover, others are here as original citizens, or of the group that was given naturalization. Thus, taking place in deliberation of the colonial era, in the mid 1920’s, where increasingly moor Mexican’s foreigners have crossed our
Identity is a peculiar thing. Identity as a person, place or even thing can be somewhat misconstrued depending on the perspective at which the observation is taking place. The following piece has an objective of helping formulate the identity of a nation in transition. A nation that has multiple creeds and cultural diversity but still looking to find its purpose in the world in which it exists in. Establishing the foundations for its existence through strong leadership, economic know how and cultural influence Mexico reaches forward to gain confidence through this time of turmoil.
During the late sixties and early seventies, a Mexican - American movement was taking place in the United States, The Chicano movement. This movement takes place because of the Mexican American society 's suppression in the country. Indeed, during the years, 1966 to 1981 was a period where the Mexican American society was looking for equality and justice from the Government of the United States. In fact, they will start to organize their own communities, where the Government will accept their new ideas. David Montejano, “a historian and sociologist, and Professor of Ethnic Studies at the University of California, Berkeley,” wrote about that movement that helps the Mexican - American society being part of the United States. One of his books is Anglos and Mexicans in the Making of Texas, 1836-1986, where he describes the relation that the Anglo and the Mexican American people have in those years. In the same way, he wrote Quixote’s Soldiers: A local history of the Chicano Movement, 1966 - 1981, where he describes the Chicano movement as a way of helping the Mexican American community. By describing the Chicano Movement and the political changes made in San Antonio, Montejano relates the problems of equality and justice, the organization created at that time, and the consequences of this movement.
In regards to the social/cultural approach to nationalism, Gellner states that nationalism is essentially the “general imposition of a high culture on society, where previously low cultures had taken up the lives of the majority”, showing that the culture belonging to one nation is distinct from that which belongs to any other. This also falls into accordance with the ethnosymbolist approach where the nation cannot be properly understood without taking their ethnic lineages into account. When looking at the neighboring states, the United States and Mexico, this is especially true. Examining their colonial roots and the legacies of their independence movements, both were radically different countries “in terms of social conditions, economics, politics and culture”.
The film Gringos at the Gate is a documentary about the interesting and dynamic relationship between the United States and Mexico. It uses the sport of soccer, futbol, to highlight the patriotism each country has for their respective country. The director also highlights the issue of identity for Mexican Americans. Many are conflicted with the idea of not knowing who they are supposed to (or in some cases allowed to) support. In this class we spoke about how through history Latin America has struggled with identity. As seen in Jake Silverstein’s article, “Grand Opening Ronald McDonald conquers New Spain”, and Gringos at the Gate, the interaction between two countries in Latin America can lead conflict in deciding one’s
Since Chavez brilliantly uses this heavily biased article toward the beginning of his book, it lays out one of the main prospects that he talks about throughout the span of the book. Chavez describes the Time cover, “Time Magazine’s June 11, 2001, cover image illustrated just how subtly the idea of the reconquest, or Mexican takeover of the United States, could be evoked.” (39) Chavez also has claims throughout the book of a hypocritical America; being a nation of immigrants that will not recognize this new sect of people living among us as legal citizens; because sarcastically he states throughout the book that American citizenship is one of solid guidelines that haven’t been changed time and time again. Although Chavez’ argument finds that last statement very sarcastic, this how many Americans are conditioned to think in the indoctrination of becoming a citizen. The three approaches to the Latino Threat helps define what it means to be an American citizen; that of dehumanization of Mexicans, the threat of Mexicans retaking America and the ultimate hypocrisy of this whole predicament of immigration and this paper will dive further in the nooks and crannies of Chavez’ writing in this book and what he feels is the definition of an American.
In the essay “Tejano Leaders Develop a borderland identity” compared to “political and cultural mediator”. Both of the essays are based before Mexican War for Independence which was revolts that grew out of control turmoil both Spain and Mexico. Also during this time, the beginning of the settlement into Texas.
Things appear different after five hundred years, yet it does not take much examination to realize that everything is the same. We focus on the minute changes, but these major themes of power, history, and the struggle for the control of knowledge are eternal and transcend the everyday. De las Casas wrote to a king to try to prevent a tragedy that he could not. Today the Latin America people face similar fates to their ancestors five hundred years prior. While the outcome is not as bloody, the loss is just as grave. Western knowledge seeks to destroy the last remaining semblances of the vast groupings that make up the term “Latin American culture.” It is not an active action in appearance, but the passive grouping into the West’s categories of race and culture has subtle motives of destruction. People are no longer ruled by kings, they guide themselves under the burdensome weight of Western knowledge and ideas. The existence of options, choices beyond growth and development, establish awareness that there is a way out of this evil. Latin American people were not born in the West, but are continually defined and judged by the system. Under such forces, it appears that the only two choices are to assimilate or bear the burden of being considered inferior. Decolonial thinking provides new pathways that lead to a new age for Latin America, providing the people recognize these pathways and are willing to take the steps to follow
Culture shock: what white America feels after reading this book. Juan Gonzalez’s Harvest of Empire encases what most Latinos want to say, but always gets muted for. The empowerment behind the title is such an intricacy yet soft to the touch. This book will make any reader reconsider about everything they’ve learned from any culture. This book covers most atrocities committed to Latin America by Spain and the US. The factor of white hegemony, hunger for power and possessions, discrimination, conquest, and the terrorization by Americans in Latin America makes this book difficult to read as a Latina. The limelight of this book is in Puerto Rico, Cuba and Mexico because how relatively close these three countries are in relation to the US. Gonzalez’s main argument of this book is to demonstrate to America how Latino presence is becoming a commonality and it will be normalized. Furthermore, it talks about the second wave of immigration and how pivotal it has become. Finally, he discusses
During the Mexican American war, racial tensions against people with Mexican ancestry increased. As the United States began to take over Mexican land many Anglo Americans continuously showed their rejection of Mexican culture and citizens by treating them cruel and unjust. The text, Early California Through the Eyes of Women, contains Bancroft and Cerruti’s interview of Rosalio Vallejo. In 1874, Vallejo recounts her experiences with complete resentment toward what had happened to her in 1846. More specifically, Vallejo’s interview reveals the injustices she was forced to endure during the Bear Flag Rebellion. Her testimonio exposes the authoritarian attitude American officials such as John C. Fremont possessed against the Californios. Not only did these men cause the destruction of her town, but they also stole from her people. Similarly, during the Mexican revolution (1910-1920) common people with Mexican ancestry living in the United States were succumbed to inferior treatment. In, Texas- Mexican Cancionero: Folksongs of the Lower Border, by Americo Paredes, the corridos stress the oppression men like Jacinto Trevino had to overcome in the hands of Texas- Rangers. In the following paper, I will show how perceived marginal figures like Rosalia Vallejo and Jacinto Trevino are able to resist the unjust treatment of Anglo American government officials in their own respective manners. While the testimonio shows resistance against American militant interference indirectly through Vallejos protest of American culture and her embracement of the spanish language, the corrido rejects Texans inferior treatment directly and physically through Trevino’s unapologetically confrontational comments and violent actions. Thus, both texts use a distinct tone and repetitive phrases in order to expose how people with Mexican ancestry have found ways to resist a long lineage of historical repression caused by their American neighbors.
The border between the United States of America and Mexico always had been always a theme for a lot of discussions. And, in the book “Sunshine/Noir II” Juanita Lopez and Michael Cheno described, through texts, their point of view about the topic. Both authors represent that the control of the border has become way more restrict and militarized. In that sense, Michael Wickert presents his idea in a poem form, text named “The border Is a Fight”, that describes the dramas of a Mexican family that has to cross the border every day in a hope to get a better future. Whereas, Juanita Lopez demonstrates it through an essay that uses personal narratives of the author’s relatives to illustrate her point of view. Therefore, the both authors exploit their point of views using different text forms, and figurative images, like metaphors and personification, for delivering their ideas in the way they do.
Before a discourse of the specified topic can be laid out, definitions of a few terms must be distinguished. Firstly, nationalism and patriotism are two distinctly different concepts that are often used interchangeably to represent a similar school of thought. By no means, are they mutually exclusive or unrelated ideologies, but nationalism and patriotism differ in their approaches to expressing love for one’s country, respectively. These definitions can be best understood on the shoulders of essayist and drama critic, Sydney J. Harris, “The Difference Between patriotism and nationalism is that the patriot is proud of his country for what it does, and the nationalist is proud of his country no matter what it does; the first attitude creates a feeling of responsibility while the second a feeling of blind arrogance that leads to a war (Harris, 1953).” While the latter definition may be a bit extreme, the general impression is still applicable. An understanding of the dichotomy between nationalism and patriotism, and how