Classical Approach To Utilitarianism

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2.1. Classical approach
The Classical approach for utilitarianism has two main prominent thinkers who are Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mills.

Jeremy Bentham’s concept of Utilitarianism
The concept of Utilitarianism was developed by Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832). He belonged to the positivist school of Jurisprudence. According to him every human life is governed by two hedonistic principles that is pleasure and pain. He believed that every individual tries to maximize his own and pleasure and also decrease pain as much as possible. Although it would seem an individualistic perspective but he also applied this principle to the society as a whole. According to him the role of every government in the society is to maximize the greatest good of the greatest number. He also
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He placed weight on the effectiveness of internal sanctions like guilt and remorse which serve to regulate our actions. He believed that humans are those sorts which have social feelings, feelings for others and are not only selfish. We care about people around us and when one inflicts harm over the other then it leads to a painful experience in us. One feels guilty for what one has done. With this he argued that conscience and sense of justice are emotions present in every human being through which comes the sense which involves a desire to punish those who have harmed others.
Just like Bentham Mill also sought to reform law and social policy with his theory of utilitarianism. The aim of increasing happiness underlies his argument of women’s suffrage and free speech. It can be seen best in his arguments regarding social status of women. He argued that it was important to improve the status of women because they were capable of these cultivated faculties, and denying them access to education and other facilities for development is resulting in a significant loss of source of happiness for the
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