Classification of Organisms Essay

1159 Words 5 Pages
Taxonomy is the study of the classification of organisms, it is the
organization (separation) of all the known organisms into groups based
on their shared features, these groups are then organized into
further, larger groups. These groups are all referred to as Taxa
(Taxon - singular). The taxa used in taxonomy are: Species, Genus,
Family, Order, Class, Phylum and kingdom, each group getting larger
going form species to kingdom.



Taxa Used in Taxonomy
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Species
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Organisms That are able to interbreed, producing fertile offspring are
considered to be of the same species, this taxon can also be divided
into subspecies and then strains (to give more
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The
first name is always a noun and the second an adjective.

The relation between Phylogeny and Classification

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history of a species, it is a valuable
biological mechanism used to determine what genus a species may fall
into, as species which have very similar (homologous) features can be
assumed to have evolved from the same common ancestors, e.g. horses
donkeys and zebras all have homologous features and can all be filed
under the genus Equus.

Artificial selection

Humans have also had a hand in how many of the animals we see every
day are the way they are. Take Dogs for example, they have been bred
to produce a wide variety of qualities that we find desirable in them,
and these can be behavioural, or physical properties. Guard dogs have
been bred to have phenotypes such as broad shoulders, heavy build and
they also have been selectively bred to be aggressive and territorial
other dogs, such as terriers have been bred to be small and fairly
docile, ideal qualities for a house pet.

In this case Humans have taken the place of natural selection for the
dogs, to tailor them to our requirements. Desirable phenotypes which
are recognized in the…