Climate Change : Global Warming

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A tremendous amount of concern regarding climate change has emerged recently as most of the human population is adversely affected by it and adapting to current and projected rates of climate change could be very challenging. There have been observed increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice, rising global sea level and small increase in growing seasons (Learner, 2007). Although climate change is attributed to both natural processes and human activities, this term has become synonymous with anthropogenic global warming (Berliner, 2003). Humans have been modifying the environment with processes associated with industrialisation and urbanisation, resulting in increased emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). The excess amounts of CO2 generated primarily due to burning of fossil fuels like coal, oil and natural gas, as well as the release of gases such as methane, nitrous dioxide, aerosols and other pollutants has led to the enhanced greenhouse effect, causing an unnatural warming of the Earth’s surface (Berliner, 2003). It is estimated that the global temperature will increase substantially by the year 2100 and that this warming will have widespread and irreversible impacts on human life and natural ecosystems (Learner, 2007). Therefore, there is a universal consensus for the need to deeply cut CO2 emissions to limit this temperature growth to below 2 degrees Celsius (McKibben, 2010).
Since the atmosphere is a globally shared

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