Clinical Manifestations Of Hiv Infections

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1- A 20-year-old cocaine abuser with a recurring upper respiratory infection is examined and is noted to have white patches in the oral cavity along with parotid enlargement. a. What history is pertinent to the examination of this patient? HIV is manifested clinically as the development of recurrent, often severe, opportunistic infections, such as respiratory infections, and oral candidiasis (white patches), due to their compromised immune system. Parotid enlargement is another common finding in person with HIV, and the use of illicit drugs, especially by injections positions the patient at high risk of acquiring HIV infection. Then, the history of present illness, past medical history, family, and personal and social history should…show more content…
Oral white patches suggest a yeast infection of the mouth named candidiasis (trush), and it is the most common oral condition in people with HIV infection. Researches estimated that 9 in 10 people with HIV present at least one oral condition related to HIV disease. This may be the first sign of immune suppression and the reason why physicians recommended HIV testing. The immune system weakens progressively over time and becomes susceptible to bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic (opportunistic) infections. Another infection (viral) with oral white patches manifestation is the hairy leukoplakia, which is believed to be caused by Epstein-Barr virus mononucleosis, also very common in HIV-related oral conditions(“HIV and the mouth”, 2011). 2- Mrs. Kline, a postoperative patient who has just undergone a right modified mastectomy, is found to have edema of the right arm. a-What is the cause of the edema and what teaching is necessary to help Mrs. Kiner? Modified mastectomy include removal of the entire breast (nipple, areola, the overlying skin, and the lining over the chest muscles), and most of the lymph nodes under the arm (axillary lymph nodes) Often, breast cancer spreads to these lymph nodes, thereby entering the lymphatic system and allowing the cancer to spread to other parts of the body. Removal of lymph nodes may affect the drainage of lymphatic fluid from the arm on the surgical side. Problems with lymphatic drainage may

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