Cognitive Theories And Theories Of Psychology

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INTRODUCTION There are many approaches that psychologists have developed in order to understand certain behavior. The most common approaches in psychology are psychodynamic, behavior, cognitive, humanistic, and biological approaches. The ultimate goal of each method is to help individuals change unhealthy thoughts, behaviors, and emotions. However, these different approaches use different techniques to form assumptions and explanations about abnormality. In this essay, cognitive and psychodynamic are the two approaches that will be discussed. Even though these two approaches have a few similarities, their differences are more obvious. COGNITIVE APPROACH The cognitive theory approach explains that people’s thoughts or beliefs form certain behaviors and emotions. This theory was developed in the early 1960s, and it attempts to describe the behavior of humans by studying thoughts and reasoning process (Beck 1995). The automatic thoughts that we have about ourselves can affect emotions and self-concept. Also, our global assumptions about other people and the world can be either positive and helpful or negative and destructive (Nolen-Hoeksema 2014). The two founders of this view, Albert Ellis and Aaron Beck, claimed “the dysfunctional thinking that influences negative emotions and maladaptive behavior is common to all psychological disturbances” (Beck 1995). With cognitive therapy, the therapist helps the patient identify and challenge their negative thoughts and dysfunctional
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