Collateral Ligaments Of The Knee

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There are 2 collateral ligaments of the knee; lateral collateral (LCL) and medial collateral (MCL). The LCL attaches from the lateral femoral epicondyle to the lateral part of the fibular head, and is the stronger of the 2 ligaments. It is a thin, round ligament and is extracapsular. The MCL attaches from the medial femoral epicondyle to the medial condyle and superiomedial part of the tibia. It also attaches to the medial meniscus and is a wide, fat ligament (Moore et al. 2010, p. 636). They are both well vascularised (Levangie & Norkin, 2012, p. 404).
There are 2 cruciate ligaments in the knee; the anterior cruciate (ACL) and posterior cruciate (PCL). The ligaments consist of type I collagen fibres, separated by type III collagen fibrils. They receive their blood supply from the middle geniculate artery and are both intracapsular (Petersen & Tillmann, 1999 & Levangie & Norkin, 2012, p.408). The ACL attaches from posteriomedial part of the lateral femoral condyle to the anteriolateral aspect of the tibia and is weaker than the PCL (Dargel et al., 2007 & Moore et al. 2010, p.642). It has a fibrocartilaginous zone 5-10mm away from the tibial ligament insertion (Petersen & Tillmann, 1999). The PCL attaches posterior tibia to the lateral aspect of the medial femoral condyle (Moore et al. 2010, p.642). It has a fibrocartilaginous zone in the middle third of the ligament (Petersen & Tillmann, 1999). The two ligaments cross over, creating a chiasm that forms a pivot for knee

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