Hyperglycemia is a very serious risk for heart disease and strokes. Complications from hyperglycemic diabetes may include coronary heart disease (CHD), heart failure, stroke, arrhythmias, or even death. High blood glucose (sugar) levels over time can lead to excess fatty deposits on the insides of your blood vessel walls. These deposits often affect blood flow, which increases the possibility of blood vessels clogging and/or hardening. As a result, this leads to heart disease. Furthermore, those with diabetic heart disease (DHD) may have less success with heart disease treatments, such as angioplasty or artery bypass grafting. “The common clustering of these risk factors in a single individual has been called the metabolic syndrome.” (Scott 1134) Uncontrolled diabetes, the biggest contributor to heart disease, is almost four times higher for adults than those without diabetes. The best way to prevent diabetic heart disease is to control it by way of reducing the risk factors through diet and lifestyle changes.
The blood glucose level has very limited range for humans to survive and stay healthy. Generally, people are able to remove excess glucose rapidly from the body but this is not the case when they are diagnosed with diabetes and insulin resistant situations. The lack of insulin resistance can also lead to a decrease in glycogen synthesis and storage as it usually converts glucose to energy for cell’s use (Jensen & et al. 2011). When insulin is produced under insulin resistance, the cells are incapable of using them effectively which then leads to high blood sugar level as ketones and ketoacids are produced as an alternative energy source for the body. The rise of ketoacid causes the blood pH acidic and the patient may also be diagnosed with ketoacidosis (Newton & Raskin 2004). There would also be less intake of lipid and more of stored triglycerides as the lipids are effected by the insulin. As the glucose levels increase, the muscle glucose uptake will decrease while the liver glucose production and blood fatty acid concentration will also increase within the body (Lichtenstein & Schwab 2000). Excess glucose within the blood are converted to fat which can lead to Diabetic Dyslipidaemia and furthermore to obesity, hypertension and
There are many different complications that are caused by diabetes. If you have diabetes, you are up to five times more likely to develop heart disease or have a stroke (WHO). When the blood glucose levels are increasing it results in the furring and narrowing of your blood vessels which may result in a poor blood supply to the heart. This can lead to a heart attack or a stroke. This doesn’t only put the patient’s life at risk but it also results in a huge cost on the NHS. It can also affect the patient’s family a friends hugely emotionally but also physically if they are in need of care after the event. It can change the patient’s life style dramatically. It is not only the blood vessels near the heart that are affected it is also the blood vessels in the nerves. This
Diabetes occur when there is a combination of inadequate secretion of insulin by the pancreatic beta cells and the peripheral insulin resistance. Insulin resistance leads to a reduced glucose transport into the muscle cells, increases both hepatic glucose production and breaking down of fats because it has been attributed to the elevated level of free fatty acids and proinflamatory cytokines in the plasma.1
This particular research was driven by the demand of the regulatory guidelines that deals with reduction of risks. The cases of cardiovascular risks among patients are have been reported to increase in the recent days. The regulatory guidance require being presented for the cardiovascular outcomes that can be used in the therapies of type 2 diabetes treatment. However, the
As previously mentioned, the left ventricle is no longer as compliant and therefore cannot fill with blood without encountering resistance. The use of diuretics decreases overall volume, which as a result decreases overall pressure. This lost pressure may be needed in order for blood to pump with added pressure against the resistance into the ventricle. Once pressure is lost the patient is said to have hypotension and is at risk for blood not being able to perfuse to vital tissues (Burchum et al., 2016, pg.
The aetiology of a disease is the known cause but the aetiology of diabetes is not fully understood. The full title of this condition is diabetes mellitus, (Smith, 2009). Homeostasis is the body 's internal natural regulatory system; it controls the body’s functions and chemical balance, every cell within is involved in maintaining a constant state of equilibrium and prevents a deviation from the norm (Scott, 2011). Hypertension is caused when blood is pumped to the heart at high pressure through a network of arteries and veins, it is thought that high levels of insulin could damage the arteries; this then can cause the arteries to become narrower forcing the blood through a smaller space (NHS Choices 2014)
The heart, nerves, blood vessels, kidneys, eyes and other organs can be negatively impacted by uncontrolled diabetes. The goal is to keep the blood sugar normal most of the time to avoid these complications.
This article goes in detail about the complications of Type 2 Diabetes, on how hyperglycemia damages the vascular system leading to microvascular disease and macrovascular disease. The complications of microvascular disease are diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy, and diabetic neuropathy. On the other hand, with macrovascular disease includes Cardio Vascular Disease (CVD), such as Atherosclerosis. Furthermore, the article gives recommendations of treating Type 2 Diabetes and the prevention of its health related complications with medication, screening, diet, and exercise.
Check BSL. Patient with diabetes is more at the risk of vascular disease. Because when blood vessels are damaged plagque starts to build up and make the vessels narrow, cause impairment of blood flow and affect decreased oxygen delivery. So it is important to keep an eye on blood sugar level.
Diabetes is a disease that is high blood sugar. When you don't take your insulin you could very well go into a diabetic coma. This disease is not something like the flu that goes away in a few days, it is very long lasting. In order to not have a cardiovascular disease too, you have to keep an eye on blood pressure and cholesterol levels. Smoking can also cause a cardiovascular disease. There are also two types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is also referred to juvenile diabetes, and other things. Of all the people with diabetes about 90% have type 2. Type 2 means your body doesn't produce enough insulin for proper function. People that suffer from obesity are most likely to suffer from type two. Having only one can of soda a day raises your
Why do we treat diabetes? There are a number of downstream events associated with abnormal blood glucose levels. If glucose levels are managed properly, the complications associated diabetes can be controlled, and sometimes completely prevented. The main problem with having more than the normal amount of glucose circulating in the blood stream is the effect that excess glucose can have on both large and small blood vessels (DTC, 2004). Micro-vascular and macro-vascular problems associated with diabetes can be seen in the heart, eyes, kidney, legs and feet. Diabetic patients are twice as likely to suffer from a mycocardial infaraction, twenty-five times more likely to suffer blindness, and seventeen times more likely to suffer kidney failure compared to a non-diabetic (DTC, 2004). Because of great number of risks associated with abnormal blood glucose levels, diabetes is aggressively treated to improve the quality of life and prevent complications in patients.
The article I chose for the patient I had in clinical is titled Heart in Diabetes: A microvascular disease. I chose it based on his diagnoses of type 2 diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, and his need for coronary artery bypass graft. The study looked at clinical trials for the “common soil hypothesis in diabetes complications” and how diabetes is associated with cardiovascular disease and death. It confirmed that the risk of macrovascular disease, but especially coronary artery disease, is increased two-four times in diabetic patients. The article also said that while there are many other factors in the risk for death from cardiovascular disease, the effects that diabetes has on the microvascular system has a substantially higher detrimental
Celentano et al 18studied 64 subjects with normal glucose tolerance (n = 25), with impaired glucose tolerance (n =15) and with type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 24) diagnosed by an oral glucose tolerance test according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization. They found early signs of diastolic dysfunction (assessed by E/A mitral flow ratio), not only in patients with diabetes but also in those with impaired glucose tolerance, independent of the confounding role of ischemia, body weight, and blood
Diabetes is associated with an increased risk of developing primarily vascular complications that contribute to morbidity and mortality of diabetic patients. Poor glycaemic control leads to vascular complications that affect large (macrovascular), small (microvascular) vessels or both. Macrovascular complications include coronary heart disease, peripheral vascular disease and stroke. Microvascular complications contribute to diabetic neuropathy (nerve damage), nephropathy (kidney disease) and retinopathy (eye disease).