Post-traumatic stress disorder is a common anxiety disorder characterized by chronic physical arousal, recurrent unwanted thoughts and images of the traumatic event, and avoidance of things that can call the traumatic event into mind (Schacter, Gilbert, Wegner, & Nock, 2014). About 7 percent of Americans suffer from PTSD. Family members of victims can also develop PTSD and it can occur in people of any age. The diagnosis for PTSD requires one or more symptoms to be present and crucially interfere with living a normal life ("Post-traumatic Stress," 2014). Women usually experience PTSD more commonly than men after being exposed to trauma. Examples of PTSD could be veterans from war experiencing traumatic
A traumatic event affects many people in various ways. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a globally recognized disorder that is common among persons who have experienced traumatic events, but is also known as a normal response by normal persons in abnormal situations. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder can be caused by a multitude of reasons, not just from traumatic events. People with various personality traits can be associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. People who suffer from poor health can also be associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. People who suffer various life occurrences such as rape, natural disasters,
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a relatively new diagnosis that was associated with survivors of war when it was first introduced. Its diagnosis was met largely with skepticism and dismissal by the public of the validity of the illness. PTSD was only widely accepted when it was included as a diagnosis in 1980 in the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) of the American Psychiatric Association. PTSD is a complex mental disorder that develops in response to exposure to a severe traumatic event that stems a cluster of symptoms. Being afflicted with the disorder is debilitating, disrupting an individual’s ability to function and perform the most basic tasks.
A person who suffers PTSD also exhibits strange behavior like avoidance of certain events, locations or anything that is deemed to bring back memories that trigger semblance of the original traumatic experience (Yehuda, 2002). As the patient tries to avoid such circumstances, they manifest as antisocial behavior. They avoid people, certain places as well as suffer a sense of memory loss. They try to numb their ability to remember the painful traumatic event. A major symptom amongst
Between February 2001 and April 2003, many were completed by approximately 9,282 Americans, 18 years of age or above, completed a survey that was conducted by The National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). According to The National Comorbidity Survey Replication study, 5,692 Americans were diagnosed with PTSD. However, this research used the DSM-4 criteria. It was estimated that the lifetime prevalence was about 6.8% for Americans in young adulthood. This was a jump from the previous year at 3.5%. The lifetime prevalence for women was higher, at 9.7%, than it was for men at 3.6%. “Kessler, R.C., Berglund, P., Delmer, O., Jin, R., Merikangas, K.R., & Walters, E.E. (2005).”
When humans undergo traumatic events that threaten their safety and wellbeing, they may become vulnerable to nightmares, fear, excessive anxiety, depression, and trembling. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a psychological illness that results from the occurrence of a “terribly frightening, life-threatening, or otherwise unsafe experience” (Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), 2012). This condition often leads to unbearable stress and anxiety. PTSD is significantly prevalent as indicated by data from the National Co-morbidity Survey which shows that at a particular time in their lives, 7.8% of 5, 877 adults in America suffered from PTSD (Andrew & Bisson, 2009). In the general population, the lifetime prevalence is estimated at 8%,
To a normal human, one might think that they can experience anxiety any day. An example is that some people think watching someone scale a building, or someone walk on a tightrope across two high buildings gives them anxiety. Although this is somewhat true, true anxiety is completely different. Anxiety is a serious mental illness that some people unfortunately suffer from. “Anxiety disorders are the most common mental illness in the U.S., affecting 40 million adults in the US” (“Facts & Statistics”) . People who have anxiety disorder are constantly worrying or stressful from normal everyday events. These patients have troubles operating in day to day operations, such as driving. There are different types of anxiety disorders including phobias,
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric sequel to a stressful event or situation of an exceptionally threatening or catastrophic nature. It develops after a person is involved in a horrifying ordeal that involved physical maltreatment or the threat of physical harm. These events can include combat or military experience, abuse during childhood or adulthood (physical or sexual), terrorist attacks, serious accidents or natural disasters. This person may have been the one that was harmed, witnessed a harmful event or had a loved one who was harmed. It is normal for the body’s fight or flight mechanism to engage in times of danger. With a person who has PTSD, that mechanism is damaged and the person feels this even when they are not in danger. Symptoms can be categorized into four different areas – re-experiencing symptoms (flashbacks, bad dreams, frightening thoughts) , avoiding situations that remind the person of the event, negative changes in beliefs and feelings (may be fear, guilt, shame or losing interest in those activities that once were enjoyable) and hypervigilence (always feeling keyed up, trouble concentrating or sleeping). There are also feelings of hopelessness, despair, depression or anxiety, alcohol or substance abuse, physical symptoms or chronic pain and problems with employment and relationships.
PTSD, or Post-traumatic Stress Disorder, is a psychiatric disorder that can occur following the experience or witnessing of a life-threatening events such as military combat, natural disasters, terrorist incidents, serious accidents, or physical or sexual assault in adult or childhood. Most survivors of trauma return to normal given a little time. However, some people will have stress reactions that do not go away on their own, or may even get worse over time. These individuals may develop PTSD. People who suffer from PTSD often relive the experience through nightmares and flashbacks, have difficulty sleeping, and feel detached or estranged, and these symptoms can be severe enough and last long enough to significantly impair the person’s daily life.
GAD’s potentially interwoven origin marks significant challenges for diagnosis and treatment. Patients often leave the opportunity for diagnosis of GAD to the primary caregiver (Roberge et al., 2015). Primary care professionals must be able to attribute physiological symptoms to psychological conditions in many of these cases to prevent missed or misdiagnosis, as well as correctly evaluate potential psychological disorders akin to GAD. The Roberge et al. (2015) research article indicates the need for increased efforts in preparing primary care professionals to properly screen and diagnose patients with GAD.
The symptoms of PTSD, while generally not life threatening, can be very distressing and have serious effects on a person’s health and well-being. There are three classes of symptoms related to PTSD, re-experiencing symptoms, avoidance symptoms, and hyperarousal symptoms. The re-experiencing symptoms are generally flashbacks, bad dreams and frightening thoughts. These symptoms are produced from the persons own thoughts and can be triggered by anything reminding them of the experience. The second classification of symptoms are called the avoidance symptoms and they include staying away from places and other objects that remind the person of the experience, as well as feeling strong guilt, depression, worry, emotional numbness, and a loss of interest in the world around you. The final classification, hyperarousal symptoms, includes being easily startled, feeling tense, having angry outbursts, and insomnia. These symptoms are
GAD is diagnosed when a person worries excessively about a variety of everyday problems for at least 6 months. Physical symptoms include tension, fatigue, insomnia, irritability, gastrointestinal problems, restlessness and edginess (Aikins & Craske, 2001). Excessive worry becomes a typical way of thinking and everyday problems result in a series of ''what-if'' thoughts, which eventually leads to a disastrous prediction. Because individuals with GAD are highly sensitive to threat in general, particularly when it has personal significance, they frequently observe possible threats (Barlow, 2002). In response to these anticipated dangers, fight-or-flight reactions are activated. In most anxiety disorders, it is generally clear what needs to be escaped or avoided (e.g., spiders or public speaking), but in GAD there is
PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder) has always been an issue especially with those that have experienced sexual assault, a traumatic accident or injury, being a prisoner of war, or participated in combat. Sadly, ever since the Iraq war, PTSD has been becoming even more widespread. Soldiers have been diagnosed with chronic PTSD and the medication has not been helping. PTSD causes a variety types of symptoms including: flashbacks, nightmares, recurring visual images of the traumatic experience, negative mood, avoiding situations that can cause a flashback, feeling disconnected from other people, being easily started, insomnia, and poor concentration. PTSD affects approximately 8 percent of all Americans at some point in their life, and 30%
Individuals with PTSD persistently re-experience their traumatic event in their thoughts, perceptions, imagery, dreams, illusions, hallucinations, and flashbacks. They may experience intense physiological distress or reactivity to cues of the traumatic event. These individuals persistently avoid any stimuli associated with the traumatic event and use other mechanisms to cope with any situation or cue that recalls or contradicts their emotional or cognitive responses to the traumatic event (American Psychiatric Association [DSM-IV-TR], 2000). Individuals with PTSD also experience persistent symptoms of increased arousal, such as irritability and difficulty concentrating. These disturbances can cause significant distress in social life, the work place, and family systems. According to the American Psychiatric Association (DSM-IV-TR), in order for individuals to be diagnosed with PTSD they must experience disturbances and symptoms for more than one month (2000). Symptoms can be specified as acute (less than 3 months), chronic (3 months or more), or with delayed onset; in which onset starts 6 months after the actual stressor (DSM-IV-TR, 2000).
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a disorder in which an individual may feel persistent, excessive, and worry about everyday things that may not even happen. Individuals with this disorder may feel worry, excessive anxiety, and have thoughts of the worst even when there is no need for concern. A person experiencing GAD may expect a disaster. They may worry about their finances, money, health, family, work, or any issue that may come to mind. This disorder may be present when a person worrying increases on more days than one for at least six months. GAD can interfere with work, school, family, and even social activities. GAD can be diagnosed in adults when they experience at least three of the symptoms. These symptoms include restlessness or feeling on the edge, fatigue, difficulty focusing or mind going blank, irritability, muscle tension, pain in back or headaches, and sleep disturbance (ADAA, n.d.).