In June of 2014 Pertussis, or the more commonly known name of Whooping Cough, hit California infecting almost 800 children in only three weeks. The California Department of Health proclaimed it an epidemic after the baseline level of Pertussis in the state was five times higher than normal. (CDC, 2014) Pertussis is an extremely contagious respiratory tract infection caused by the bacteria Bordetella Pertussis. It is spread from person to person through small droplets expelled during coughing or sneezing and close contact with other humans. The incubation period between the exposures to symptoms is generally 5-10 days. Small infants may be exposed to Pertussis from siblings, daycare providers or even parents. Pertussis usually affects infants and children between the ages of 7-16 years but can also affect adults. It can be deadly in children under one year of age.
Seasonal Influenza, More Information| Seasonal Influenza (Flu) | CDC. (2017). Cdc.gov. Retrieved 15 September 2017, from https://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/qa/disease.htm
Vitamin A and D have showed unexpected and crucial effects on immune system. Vitamin A includes innate immune towards microbial infection, absence of vitamin A can increase the chance of bacterial, viral, and parasitic infection. Also excessive intake of vitamin A Is associated with toxicity, including blocked hematopoiesis, mitogen-induced T-cell spread, antigen-specific antibody production, and an increased susceptibility to infectious organisms. Vitamin A is also given by Retinoid supplement to treat the skin effects of T-cell lymphoma. Vitamin C also known as Ascorbic Acid also contribute in innate immunity system, Vitamin C works during infection to prevent oxidative damage. Lower concentration of vitamin C in leukocyte is related to reduce immune response in humans. It has been proven that Vitamin C concentrations in the plasma and leukocytes rapidly decline during infections and stress. Iron chelators such as desferrioxamine inhibit the activity of phagocyte oxidase and reduce reactive oxygen intermediate-dependent killing of bacterial pathogens, both in vitro and in vivo. Lastly, Zinc is a dietary trace mineral that is responsible for growth and development, and it is essential for the function of cells of the immune system. It increased susceptibility to
I enjoyed reading your discussion. You did a good job answering the questions. You were straight to the point and it sounds good. Both the common cold and the flu are caused by viruses. The common cold is caused by the rhino virus which makes your nose run. The flu is caused by the influenza virus as you have it in your response. Here is an interesting fact about the flu: in 1918 and 1919 the flu was so bad that 1/4 of the European population died out of it. The reason why the health facilities want people to vaccinate is to avoid what happened in 1918-1919. Also, the symptoms that you experience when you take the flu shot are 1/100 part of what would it feel like if you had that particular strain of the flu. So people should not complain too
To understand why the public’s health is in a precipitous decline it’s best to first look into the case of nutritional deficiency; are we getting all the vitamins and minerals our bodies require? One of the core issues is the misinformation on what a vitamin really is and why one should be concerned about this. The Food and Drug Administration has a firm stance that these synthetic vitamins
"An innovative treatment has come to our attention that promises to significantly reduce absenteeism in our schools and workplaces. A study reports that in nearby East Meria, where consumption of the plant beneficia is very high, people visit the doctor only once or twice per year for the treatment of colds. Clearly, eating a substantial amount of beneficia can prevent colds. Since colds are the reason most frequently given for absences from school and work, we recommend the daily use of nutritional supplements derived from beneficia. We predict this will dramatically reduce absenteeism in our schools and workplaces."
Influenza strikes each winter in the United States. In 2014, influenza and pneumonia were listed as one of the top fifteen leading causes of death with more than 55,000 deaths occurring nationally (Kochanek, 2016, p. 43). Ohio Christian University has a goal to decrease the incidence of flu-related illnesses on campus and improve the health of students both on and off campus over the winter months.
Influenza, or more generally recognized as the flu, is a virus that affects the upper respiratory system and can infect both humans and animals, but generally circulated throughout humans. It is an eminently contagious illness that is continually changing and has three known strains, Influenza A, B and C. While C causes nothing other than a few minor symptoms, its counterparts B and A can be disrupting, uncomfortable and in serious cases, lethal. Influenza A and B can both cause epidemics and pandemics, as well as being dispersed around seasonally. Symptoms of influenza include chills, a sore throat and cough, runny nose, headache and fatigue. This is because the virus infects your lungs and throat, irritating them. Due to the extra white blood
Since most cooking methods deplete the content of vitamin C, one of the best methods for adding it to one’s diet is to eat citrus fruits raw, or to very lightly cook green vegetables like broccoli. Spinach salad is a tasty way to add more vitamin C to your diet. Vitamin C has recently been added not just to many foods, but also to many cosmetic products, particularly skin creams marketed as “anti-aging.” It is too early to tell if these products are effective, though some users feel they are quite
The textbook authors appear to disagree with the statement that laughter and other emotions are similar to the common cold because they do not think that our emotions are caused by an external factor and are something that we do not have control over. One of the main sociological groups that disagreed with this notion were feminists who believe that we have the ability to control our emotions. However, while emotions are not something we are incapable of controlling, the textbook later goes on to state that we generally choose our reaction to a stimulus in a culturally appropriate manner.
It is not clear whether vitamin D supplements can reduce risk of severe asthma in all patients. The article mentioned that the risk of severe asthma is not fully understood. Most of the patients recruited for this supplement study had mild to moderate asthma; consequently, the data from this study needs to be interpreted with caution. The article clearly explains the approach to treat patients with severe asthma; however, the research group does not seem to have the right group of candidates to properly test the efficacy of their supplement.
Influenza is a highly contagious disease which can spread across the population by the body secretions which contain the active influenza virus (Collignon & Carnie, 2006). It poses serious threats to the society as it promotes fear, anxiety, and discrimination, and consequently causes destruction to the normal function of the society (Selgelid, 2009). Unless people develop immunity against the influenza virus (Collignon & Carnie, 2006), an influenza pandemic will remain a global emergency as extremely high number of people all over the world will require care at the same time (Kotalik, 2005). Since the global impact of pandemic varies across history, prediction regarding the magnitude of impact will often be overestimated or underestimated
If there are more strains of influenza virus than expected in the air, individuals can easily contract virulent strains that influenza vaccines do not protect the individual from. Additionally, people who are unhealthy and malnourished are susceptible to contracting influenza than people who consume antioxidants or herbs on a daily basis. People who are unhealthy and malnourished are often prone to contracting influenza as their body is unable to fight the virus as well compared to individuals who do consume dietary supplements. In this secondary analysis, a comparison of data sets will be made to determine whether consuming dietary supplements regularly lowers the prevalence of contracting the influenza virus among the adult population in the United States. The comparisons of participants who do consume dietary supplements are of importance as these dietary supplements may be used to lower the prevalence of influenza virus in individuals. As influenza is a common occurrence during the winter months, consuming dietary supplements such as antioxidants and herbs may help lower the prevalence of influenza among the adult population in the United
“A recent study published in Seminars in Preventive and Alternative Medicine that looked at over 100 studies over 10 years revealed a growing list of benefits of vitamin C” (Kathleen M. Zelman, 2010).
We live in a society in which we are in a state of constant fear of diseases. From when we are young we are taught repeatedly to wash our hands before every meal and to eat an apple daily. Moreover, we are catechized on a regular basis to bundle up so we do not catch a cold or pneumonia. Likewise, our doctors advise us to visit them annually to make sure we don’t have deficiency related disorders such as scurvy or anemia. What if there is a vitamin that could aid in preventing the aforementioned illnesses? Would it not be worth a try? Consider this an introduction to vitamin C! Details on this “wonder vitamin” are elaborated in the subsequent paragraphs!