During the test the patient is asked to remain still, shivering could distort the reading therefore you are to be warm while the test is in progress. The patient is able to breathe normally. The test shows a line tracing with spikes and valleys on a piece of paper. Those spikes and valleys are called waves. The creation of the waves are made by the upper chambers and lower chambers. The upper chambers make the first wave referred to as the “P wave” and the lower chambers make the second wave, which is referred to as “QRS complex”. Following this wave is the “T wave”, the final wave. This wave is the electrical recovery or return to the resting state for the ventricles. This test measures how long it takes an electrical wave to pass through the heart. It also tests if the electrical activity is normal, or too slow, or possibly to fast. EKG’s can even help find the cause of certain symptoms of heart disease. Such as shortness of breath, dizziness and palpitations. They also can determine if the walls of the heart are too thick. It can test whether medications are causing side effects to the heart. People with pacemakers get EKGs done to test how well the devices is
12 Lead Electrocardiogram (ECG) - There are typical changes to the normal pattern of the ECG in a heart attack. Patterns that occur include pathological Q waves and ST elevation (Koutoukidis, Stainton & Hughson 2013, p. 505). However, it is possible to have a normal ECG even if a patient has had a heart attack. The indicators for this test include: suspected myocardial infarction, suspected pulmonary embolism, perceived cardiac dysrhythmias, fainting or collapse, a third heart sound, fourth heart sound, a cardiac murmur or other findings to indicate structural heart disease. The
12 lead EKG: It is one of the tools for initial evaluation of patients suspected of coronary syndromes such as MI. It as a sensitivity of 80% (Kreatsoulas et al., 2016). ST segment changes of elevation or depression, left bundle branch block, presence of Q waves, new onset of T wave inversion are suggestive of ischemic changes of heart. In this case, then Intervention for cardiac catheterization with stent placement may be required (McConaghy & Oza, 2013).
Cardiovascular. Client denies chest pain, palpitations, murmurs, any arrhythmias, hypertension, awakening at night with shortness of breath, or dizzy spells. Client has not had an electrocardiogram.
A physical examination, specifically auscultation of the heart, as well as an electrocardiogram and echocardiogram are used to assess the heart fully. Upon physical
The doctor, cardiologist, and other medical professionals will be looking for certain things to determine if a person has heart failure; for example, a third heart beat (besides the usual “lub” “dub”). Heart failure is diagnosed by certain symptoms along with certain medical tests (Krum, 2009). Some medical tests conducted by various kinds of doctors are the following: Electrocardiograms, Echocardiography, and MRIs. An electrocardiogram is a machine that displays a person’s heartbeat to assess electrical and muscular purposes of the heart. Electrocardiograms are helpful because it can rule out a certain type of heart failure (Krum, 2009). Echocardiography uses ultrasound technology to examine the heart. This test can help with the diagnosis of heart failure because it can give the medical professional information about the left ventricle. An MRI is a medical exam to determine if someone has heart failure because it gives an evaluation of the
The ECG is a test that connects wires to the chest and arms displaying the electrical signals of the heart on a monitor. In atrial fibrillation, the monitor will display no discernable, independent P waves, but rather replaced by evident F waves. The QRS complex will vary with R-R intervals and result in a rapid, narrow complex (Goralnick, 2015). The ECG can also provide other information such as presence of bundle-branch block, left ventricle hypertrophy, and prior myocardial infraction (Floyd, 2016). The holter monitor is a portable ECG that is carried around and records 24 hours or more of heart activity to later be interrupted by the doctor. The event recorder is again the portable ECG that is intended to record weeks to months of heart activity and records only if an episode of atrial fibrillation occurs. The echocardiogram is a noninvasive test that shows a video image of the heart originated by sound waves. These images can show if there is any structural damage of the heart. Blood tests are completed to eliminate thyroid issues or other biomarkers in the blood that could be causing the atrial fibrillation (Mayo Clinical Staff, 2015). Positive biomarker results are elevated C-reactive protein and B-type natriuretic peptide
An EKG would be the first test completed on Mrs. Lee; evaluating her cardiac rhythm and rate. The symptoms described by Mrs. Lee suggests atrial fibrillation. To determine atrial fibrillation via EKG we would be looking for an irregular rhythm, a very fast rate, absent p-waves, an absent PR interval and an either normal or widened QRS (Heart and Stroke, 2017).
Angiography. This is a test that produces images of arteries in your body. You may need aortic angiography or CT angiography. In aortic angiography, a dye flows to your heart through a soft, flexible tube (catheter) while X-rays are taken. CT angiography uses a CT scanner and MRI in addition to the catheter, dye, and X-rays.
Heart failure diagnoses are carried out by a specialized medical practitioner. It comprises of holistic patient health review such as patient medical history, patients symptoms, lungs con-gestion assessment, carrying out physical activity under observation, assessing for fluid re-tention (edema) and also assessing risk factors such as Coronary artery diseases, high blood pressure, Diabetes. According to tansy (2010 1399), heart failure can be diagnosed using different test methods such as Blood tests. This helps to check for any possible diseases in the thyroid, kidney or liver that can cause heart problems (NT-proBNP). N--terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide is a chemical checked in the blood. When the heart is under stress BNP is secreted
Cardiac catheterization is often referred to as coronary angiography or a coronary angiogram. It is a radiographic procedure that is used to look at and visualize the heart and the coronary arteries. During a cardiac catheterization it is possible for the cardiologist performing the procedure to see how effectively blood is flowing through the coronary arteries. In addition, this procedure allows the cardiologists to see how blood is moving through the chambers of the heart and how effective the heart valves are functioning. A cardiac catheterization can also allow for the visualization of the movement of the walls of the heart to see if the pumping action of the heart is normal.
Electrocardiogram (ECG) will detect and records the heart’s electrical activity.16 Stress test and stress echocardiogram also can be performed.16 Last but not least, Computed Tomography (CT) scan can be performed as well.16 It will show h¬-ow much calcium is in the arteries; the level of calcium.16