Communicating At Work By Ronald B. Essay

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1.1 Culture
Cultures differ from nation to nation. Culture plays an important role in communicating with other people. In Matthew Arnolds’ Culture and Anarchy (1867), culture is described as “special intellectual or artistic endeavors or products.” In Primitive Culture, Edward B. Tylor (1871) defined culture as "that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society." all folks “have” culture, learned by virtue of membership in some social group – society. In the book “Communicating at Work” by Ronald B. Adiel and Jeanne Marquardt Elmhorst, the definition of culture is “a learned set of shared interpretations about beliefs, values, and norms, which affect the behaviors of a relatively large group of people.”
Culture is distinguished by the way of speaking, language, clothing, norms, values and beliefs. Culture differences influence the way people communicate. For instance, in China and Japan, exchanging inexpensive presents at first meeting is imperative. But in western countries, gifts are not anticipated initially. Gifts in number of four are prevented in Japan because four sounds like death. Similarly, in doing business, the role of formality is high in Asia but significantly lower in western countries. Therefore, the awareness of cross-cultural variations as well as similarities can lead to an effective international communication.
1.2 Influence of Culture on Consumer
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