Communities and Urbanization Essay

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George Murdock once said that a community is one of the two truly universal units of society organization, the other one being family (Schaefer, 461). We are all part of a community, and in many cases, we are a part of multiple ones. In chapter 20 of our textbook, we are looking at communities and urbanization. It discusses urbanization and how communities originate. It also looks at the different types of communities. Communities are defined as “a spatial or political unit of social organization that gives people a sense of belonging” (Schaefer, 548). It can be based on a place of residence, such as a city, neighborhood, or a particular school district. It
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Early Communities used the basic tools and what they have learned to survive. For food they would have to go hunting, foraging for fruits or vegetables, fishing and herding. Back then they didn’t have what we had; they had to depend on the physical environment and what they could use in their own environment. It was no longer necessary to move from place to place for food, people were able to create crops for farming. As time went on agricultural techniques grew more sophisticated and division of labor became developed. People were able to produce more food than they needed so that’s how exchanging foods came about. This was a critical step in the emergence of cities. People were able to produce enough food for themselves and for people who didn’t involve themselves in farming. It leads to expansions of goods, leading greater differentiation, a hierarchy of occupations and social inequality. Surplus was a precondition not only for the establishment of cities but for a division of members of a community into social classes. The ability to produce goods for other communities marked a fundamental shift in human social organization.
Preindustrial cities, as it is termed generally had only a few thousand people living within borders and was characterized by relatively closed class system and limited mobility. In these early cities you were based on characteristics such as family background and education. All of
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