Anyone can get pneumonia, but elderly, infants, and those with weakened immune system are at a higher risk. Pneumonia is commonly a complication of an upper respiratory system infection such as the influenza virus. Pneumonia often starts with symptoms that are typical of a common cold, like sore throat, nasal congestion and cough. As the infection develops in the lungs, symptoms such as fever, difficulty breathing, fatigue, wheezing, dry cough, shaking chills,
This paper explores Pneumonia and the respiratory disease process associated with bacterial and viral pathogens most commonly located in the lung. The paper examines the process, symptoms and treatments most commonly viewed in patient cases of Pneumonia. My goal is to educate the reader and to warn of the
The clinical manifestations of pneumonia will be different according to the causative organism and the patient’s underlying conditions and/or comorbidities (Smeltzer, et al). Some of the manifestations are
It was also noted that the patient had an influenza vaccine for this season, however a rapid influenza and RSV test were completed which resulted negative (Fahey, 2011). Fahey (2011) also discussed how difficult it is to identify organisms that cause pneumonia, and how cultures are not done a lot in the primary care setting (Fahey, 2011). A chest radiograph was ordered for suspected pneumonia and a confirmed diagnosis of left lobar pneumonia was received (Fahey, 2011). The most common organisms that cause pneumonia in children were discussed by age group (birth-3 weeks=group B streptococcus; 3 weeks-4 months= streptococcus or chlamydia pneumonia; 4 months-5 years=viruses and RSV in the younger than 2 year age group) (Fahey, 2011). It was discussed that pneumonia patients typically present with respiratory symptoms and fever (Fahey, 2011). This article also discussed the diagnosis of children older than 1 year is usually made through clinical/physical assessment, and it is not always possible to determine the pathogen causing the problem because cultures and lab work are not routinely done as an outpatient (Fahey, 2011). The requirements for the hospitalization of children were discussed, and the importance of practitioners using algorithms for CAP management
This patient has right middle lobe pneumonia as evidenced by the lung sounds and radiographic evidence, along with her fever, chills, and productive cough. The most common pathogen for an otherwise-healthy, middle-aged adult would be Streptococcus pneumoniae. Respiratory viruses, Haemophilus influenzae, and atypical pathogens (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Legionella spp, Chlamydia pneumoniae, or C. Chlamydia psittaci) are also causes of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Based on her CURB-65 score (an acronym for predicting mortality in community-acquired pneumonia; Confusion of new onset, blood Urea nitrogen greater than 7 mmol/L, Respiratory rate of 30 breaths/minute or greater, Blood pressure less than 90 mmHg systolic, or diastolic blood pressure 60 mmHg or less, age 65 or older) , this patient meets the criteria for outpatient management. Outpatient management is generally carried out via appropriate antibiotics for 5 days. Symptoms should generally begin to improve with resolution of fever within 24–-48 hours after initiation of antibiotics and improvement of cough within 3–-6 days. If a patient doesn’t begin to improve within 48–-72 hours after initiation of therapy, they he or she should be reevaluated. All patients will need follow-up a few days after initial presentation to determine if they are improving and if there are any complications. A Rrepeat chest Xx-ray may be performed, but radiographic evidence of improvement is likely
The significant negative individual predictors of a diagnosis of pneumonia included sinus pain, sore throat,head congestion, chest congestion, and rhinorrhoea (Evertsen , Baumgardner , Regnery , Banerjee (2010) Green sputum was significant in both alternative diagnoses but not pneumonia (Evertsen , Baumgardner , Regnery , Banerjee (2010). Rales, dyspnea, chest pain, heart rate, and a temperature ≥ 100°F (37.8°C) were the best predictors of a diagnosing pneumonia (Evertsen , Baumgardner , Regnery , Banerjee (2010).
- There are other types of bacteria that can cause pneumonia such as Staphylococcus aureus, Moraxellacatarrhalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Neisseria meningitidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, danHaemophilus influenzae.
Pneumonia that is caused by certain bacteria, including Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophilapneumoniae, usually results in milder symptoms, even in children.This type of pneumonia, known as atypical or walking pneumonia, is most common among school-age children.Children with this type of pneumonia may not feel sick enough to stay home, but they could have the symptoms like dry cough, low grade fever, headache or tiredness.
Pneumonia is an illness of the lower respiratory tract in which the lungs become inflamed and congested and alveolar spaces are filled with fluid and cells-polymorphs and lymphocytes (Mandell L.A). It is an inflammatory condition of the lung and it is one of the most serious infections, causing two million deaths annually among the young and elderly. Pneumonia is the largest killer, accounting for 28% to 34% of all child deaths below five years of age in low-income countries and is an important cause of mortality in the elderly in high-income countries (Suárez).
Globally, pneumonia is a serious disease that more often than not results in death. However, with the exception of drug resistant strains, pneumonia is very preventable and easily treated if caught early in the disease process. This is a summary of the disease process, clinical presentation, and patient education about pneumonia.
Pneumonia is a serious infection in the lungs that causes illness in all ages and can be mild to severe, to the extent of causing death. Pneumonia is characterized by inflammation of the alveoli in one or both lungs that leads to fluid/pus filled the alveoli and is commonly a complication from respiratory infections like the Flu, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and Asthma, just to name a few. Though it is most serious for older adults, babies, people with impaired immune systems and people suffering from other diseases; anyone can get this infection even healthy young people (Crosta, 2015).
Pneumonia can affect anyone, but more importantly who and what qualifies as being at risk? There two age groups that are at greater risk of developing pneumonia: infants, 2 years old and younger and adults, 65 years old and older (NIH 2011). The reason, pneumonia tends to affect people with a weak immune system. Conditions and factors that increase your risk are organ transplant, lung diseases such as asthma, AIDS, HIV, diabetes, heart failure, tuberculosis, sickle cell anemia, and any other serious illness (NIH 2011). People who are hospitalized and placed on ventilators are at a higher risk, for it affects those who’s natural defenses are down. Hospital-acquired pneumonia is very common and it is fatal compared to cases acquired outside the hospital (Ferrara 2010).
Pneumonia is an inflammation or infection of the lungs most commonly caused by a bacteria or virus. Pneumonia can also be caused by inhaling vomit or other foreign substances. In all cases, the lungs' air sacs fill with pus , mucous, and other liquids and cannot function properly. This means oxygen cannot reach the blood and the cells of the body.
The patient's overall symptoms and lab work suggest that she is suffering from hospital acquired pneumonia. Currently the patient is presenting a moist chesty cough. Additionally, her heart rate is elevated, her oxygenation is low, and her RR is high. She has a raised white blood cell count, which indicates infection. Finally, the patient is acting confused and disoriented, which can be the direct result of a lack of oxygenation to the brain. All of these symptoms point to pneumonia (Torres, 1999).
Typical symptoms include cough, fever, and sputum production, usually developing over days and sometimes accompanied by pleurisy. Physical examination may detect tachypnea and signs of consolidation, such as crackles with bronchial breath sounds. This syndrome is commonly caused by bacteria, such as S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae.