Community And Social Disorganization Theory

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Community and Social Disorganization In the early part of the twentieth century, some social observers criticize that “while criminal anthropologists Lombroso and Hooton focused their attention on discerning whether criminals had larger foreheads or more tattoos than non criminals, they ignored the larger changes in society that were occurring around then” (Cullen, 97). In other words, these social observers indicate that the traditional criminology, such as the biological theory, is established without considering the presence of the society. Thus, researchers start to focus on examining the social factors, such as education level, age, and social class to explain criminality in the context of the community. In this paper I will argue that in the frame of the social disorganization theory, the social characteristics, such as instability of high crime community are factors of social disorganization, and crime is viewed as a phenomenon that is caused by social disorders. As a result, the criminal justices agencies tend to implement laws and policies that stress the importance of “collective efficacy.” Nevertheless, as one of the key stages in criminal justice system, incarceration may increase the potentiality of instability, and may lead to more crime activities. In his book, Crime And Public Policy, James Wilson states that a neighborhood is “ a collection of both people and institutions occupying a spatially defined area influenced by ecological, cultural, market and
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