Leininger and Kübler-Ross
Theories exist to guide and teach individuals about how and why certain disciplines function. One discipline that has many theories is nursing. Nursing theories help to guide patient care. For instance, Madeleine Leininger developed the theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality also known as transcultural nursing (TCN), which helps nurses to be culturally competent. There are also non-nursing theorists which can add to a nurse’s knowledge in caring for their patient. Elisabeth Kübler-Ross’ theory on the five stages of grief is an example of a non-nursing theorist. The purpose of this paper is to discuss Leininger and Kübler-Ross’ theories, analyze how they contribute to the nursing community, and…show more content… 421). This takes into account the values of one who is culturally based which encompasses all aspects of life, worldview, religion, social, language, and economic matters. Culturally based care can make positive differences in one’s health (McFarland, 2014). Leininger’s theory encompasses the four metaparadigms of health, nursing, person, and environment. Her theory supports the aspect of health by suggesting that patients that are cared for by culturally based care will have better outcomes of heath and well-being. In nursing, TCN keeps the patient at the forefront of the nurse’s actions and helps to guide their care. The person is capable of caring and ultimately cares for others like children, elderly, and themselves. The environment refers to the physical place where the person lives including their surroundings which includes their culture and its practices. Leininger (1997) states that as “nurses become educated in TCN they will understand the multiple holistic, social structure and environmental factors influencing care, health, dying, disabilities and other human conditions related to both poor and affluent cultures” (p.19). Leininger’s theory is valued worldwide. This theory gives nurses a way to treat and care for the many diverse patients that will cross their paths. This theory is a theory for today and years to come due to the multicultural world in which we live (McFarland, 2014).