12. Describe and give an example exemplifying the tension between explanations of mental illness based on the medical model and those based on the psychological model.
The biomedical model is the most dominant theory in modern western medicine of health, it has been held by many official health practitioners such as doctor, surgeons and consultants. The biomedical model presumes that the illness is always due to abnormalities in the body. The theory of this is if a part of the body goes wrong it should be fixed or replaced, in the same way the machine is repaired. It takes the simplest possible cause of the illness and supplies to the simplest cure. The biomedical model is to lessen the number of morbidity and early morality deaths. In this model, it focuses on the part of the body, which work together to make sure that they have a good healthy body (Bowling, 2014). It focuses on the actual person, rather than focusing on the social and emotional process of the individual. It focuses on the risk rather than the avoiding. In contrast with the biomedical model, which pictures illness as mechanical malfunctions, Parsons described the fixed role as a temporary medically sanction form of abnormal behavior. Parsons used his idea from Freud’s psychoanalytic theory, the idea that a sick person has a
that is passed down to each individual. The medical model defines mental illness as a biological disease that is caused by malfunctioning neurophysiological process. The DSM-5 is used in the medical model as a classification system of psychological disorders to help the clinician diagnosis and treat mental illnesses. There are strengths and limitations of focusing on the medical model and the use of the DSM when working with clients.
Medical Model which is the medical perspective and oldest form of treatment available with recommendations of medications, psychiatric medication, studies along with other professional methods of treating a client. Symptom-diagnosis-treatment-cure is the elements of the model.
In college, I was in class one day when I suddenly felt my heart pounding. Perspiration quickly rolled down my neck and I was unable to catch my breath. A few minutes later, but what felt like an unbearable amount of time, the feeling subsided but I was left unnerved. I later realized what I had experienced fit the criteria to be categorized as a panic attack. I researched it and found that it was not purely a physical illness; instead, it was psychologically driven. That was what sparked my interest to learn more about the human mind and the physical responses it can create. Psychiatry is a field of medicine that is boundless. Furthermore, it is integral to all of medicine. Many patients develop psychological sequelae as a result of other chronic illnesses. I have always been intrigued by the impact that our emotions have on our behavior. Throughout my life I have often wondered why do some minds create happiness, and others suffering, despite identical external circumstances.
Another model of health that evolved over time is the physical-mind model. This model purports that a person’s overall state of health or ability to heal can be affected on how or what they think. For instance, that depression or anxiety can negatively impact a critically ill patient’s ability to heal. It also recognized that feelings or emotions can physically manifest as illness. For example, someone who is extremely anxious can give themselves an ulcer, without doing something to physically harm themselves. Simply being under significant stress can cause a physiological response to stimulate the creation of more stomach acid and wears a hole in the lining of the stomach, creating an ulcer. When using this model of health, doctor and nurses can treat a person, mind and body, when they have an illness.
The biomedical model is a model of health which lays emphasis on the biological and physical aspects of diseases and is mostly used by doctors or health professionals and is associated with the diagnosis, treatment, and cure of diseases. while Health psychology is the study of the role of psychology in any physical health problem ranging from coughs and colds to cancer, coronary heart disease, HIV, obesity, and diabetes. (The psychology of health and illness. Ogden, J. (2012).it will talk about the various stages of health linked to the case study of Fatima who suffered from fatigue and hypertension and even elaborating on the varicose theoretical frameworks used in health psychology. the question here is can the case study be linked to the
What is the biomedical approach to mental health? "The biomedical model of mental illness assumes that abnormal psychological states or experiences are the results of abnormalities in the brain or genetics and, as such, necessitate medical or chemical
The biomedical model of health takes into account the physical or biological quality of life and is widely used in the Western medicine approach to health (Gurung, 2104). A basic assumption of this model is that the mind and body connection is irrelevant. Many advances in medicine have occured because of the biomedical model of health. In using evidence-based medicine it has been possible to evaluate the results of clinical and pharmaceutical research in order to make strides in medicine (Ashton, 1999). It takes advantage of algorithmic treatment options. Even though this approach may be more difficult for a psychiatrist to utilize when diagnosing and treating a patient, this model has radically shaped psychotherapy research and psychiatric medication (Deacon, 2013). The biomedical approach lends itself more readily to research because of its quantitative nature and it is less subjective than the biopsychosocial approach when measuring emotions and culture.
Psychopathology is a term, which refers to either the study of mental illness, mental distress or the manifestation of behaviors and experiences, which may be indicators to mental illness, or psychological impairment (Psychopathology, n.d.) Within clinical counseling, the use tends to be in the treatment of mental disorders, the origins or the development of mental disorder. Technologies are being used, as well as have been, developed that require an accurate model, which is always being advanced within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders, or the DSM. (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). For example, recent technology includes molecular genetics and mature statistical models. Which will in term assist in attempts to better understand where psychological disorders originate form. Currently, most psychopathology research follows the guidelines based in the fourth edition of the DSM, which assumes that mental disorders
The Biopsychosocial model (BPS) was established in the early 1970s as a replacement for the biomedical approach created by George Engel (1977). He had argued against the reductionist biomedical model of disease for not considering the behavioural, psychological and social dimensions in the model (Jull, 2017). Wade and Halligan, (2016) had established that biomedical remains as the dominant healthcare approach. The aim of BPS is to integrate the biological factors with psychological and environmental factors, Engel (1977) suggested that the biopsychosocial model of illness has a significant role in the functioning of humans in terms of disease or illness and can make medicine more scientific and should be adopted into psychiatry research (Adler, 2009). Davies and Roache, (2017) established that the model was exceedingly determined, recommending new details for practices as well as a non-reductive advocate for mental illness.
The second difference is the treatment that is used. The biological perspective treats mental illnesses in the same way that physical illnesses are, therefore, medical treatment such as medicine is used. Moreover, the psychoanalytic perspective uses free association, hypnosis and dream analysis which try to eliminate problems in the unconscious mind.
Mental disorders have long been the Achilles heel of the medical world. With each case having some degree of uniqueness, physicians are often unable to fully treat these types of conditions with just a generalized medication or textbook treatment option. There are many competing theories as to how one falls ill to a mental disorder. Some claim that it occurs solely through chemical imbalances within a person’s brain, while others see it as a more wholistic problem that is the result of an endless possibility of differing factors. Through the characterization found within “Superstar” and “The Yellow Wallpaper” and the data shown in studies done by the Medical University of Lublin, it becomes evident that seemingly internal disorders, such as anorexia and hysteria, are caused, in reality, by the need for social control that develops in response to purely external factors such as daunting expectations or stressful lifestyle.