When the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan on December 1979, the goal was to help Afghan communist forces set up a communist government. The Soviet Union felt Afghanistan had key resources and a foothold in the Middle East to spread communist ideas. The result would be a war that the Soviet Union wishes it never got involved in and likened to their “Vietnam War”, meaning winning a number of battles but not the war like what happened to the U.S. in Vietnam. The background of the war, outcome of the war, and impact on the United States are key to understanding the Soviet-Afghan War.
For over 2 centuries, Afghanistan has known virtually no time without war. Beginning around 326 B.C. with the conquests of Alexander the Great, to the Persians, British, Russians and most recently, America and our NATO allies, Afghanistan has been cultivated into the country that it is today through a trial by fire. Regardless of this relentless onslaught of foreign military power, the Afghan people have tirelessly defended their homeland with no outside power ever being able to subdue them completely. Following the withdrawal of the Soviet Union in 1989, the country fell into civil war, torn even further apart by fiercely dedicated tribal warlords. This power vacuum led to the rise of a group called the Taliban. Led by a one eyed man
The Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan just to see themselves as the big “Losers” of the war. The defeat of the Soviet Union in Afghanistan was a serious blow to the prestige of the Army, to national pride and faith in the soviet political leaders. The scars it left on many of the remaining soldiers created social and political problems. A reform of the military was necessary. In the midst of all these turmoil, “there was also corruption and inefficiency within the states bureaucracy” (p.3 smitha.com) and nothing seemed to get done. The soviet people and some Eastern European countries were fed up of all these ongoing problems the Soviet Union was facing. The soviet people were fed up with the high communist party which stood ground and dominated the entire soviet politics, as this was the only party in the states since Stalin’s regime. The party had become rigid and corrupt which discouraged younger party members who saw little chance of advancement. At this stage corruption was the order of the soviet system of government which buoyed lack of commitment to the government.
In 1979, the USSR took control of the Afghan capital, Kabul, and tried to gain control over the whole country and its people. The invasion was a failure, costing thousands of lives and having serious consequences.
When the soviet union invaded afghanistan the war lasted for 9 years 1979-1989. Between 1 million to 1.5 million people were killed in that war and millions of people when to a diffrent countries such as pakistan or iran as refugees. The United States supported Afghanistan by supplying arms to the Mujahadeen. Ronald Reagan sent billions of dollars to the Mujahadeen so he can help Jihad against the Soviet Union. “Reagan believed this defense shield could make nuclear war impossible. Reagan deployed CIA special activities division paramilitary officers to train, equip and lend the Mujahideen battalion against the Soviet army”. Reagan’s objective was winning the Cold War and the rollback of communism. The United States also offered financial and
447). This only goes on to administer Gorbachev’s ongoing practice of openness, as he further explains that the only ones that gain from the ongoing conflict in Afghanistan are those expecting to exploit the misfortunes of others. By ridding Soviet support of the Afghan war, it also helps support the ideals of the disarmament and negotiations related to the elimination of intermediate and short range missiles. He closes by saying that states have sufficient reserves of responsibility, political will and determination to put an end to regional conflict (Doc 82, pg. 448). Outlining the importance of reform within the afghan war, it shows strong similarities of the changing reform that has now been an ongoing implementation within the Soviet Union as
Soviet invasion of Afghanistan- In 1979, the USSR invaded Afghanistan to support the communist government in Afghanistan against noncommunist guerillas supported by the Americans and West. The war began when the USSR began land reforms that were resented by many people, which The war dragged on, costing thousands of Soviet lives despite the fact that the Soviet troops were not able to achieve their objectives, hence the reason why the war was called “Russia’s Vietnam.” Osama bin Laden was among the anti-Communist guerillas and would later lead the terrorist organization that orchestrated the 9/11 attacks.
The situation in Afghanistan actually began in 1979 when the Soviet Union invaded their country. The United States funded money to the "mujahedin," or holy warriors, in the name of stopping communism. From this support, Afghanistan was able to defeat the Soviet Union in 1989. Yet the country became very unstable after the war. Political power was fluctuating often and leaders came in and out of power rapidly. Farmers resorted to growing many drugs such as poppies and marijuana and sold them around the globe. Cities were annihilated. Over five million Afghanis fled to other countries in search of a better life. When the Afghanis turned to the United States for help in rebuilding our country, we refused. This caused great anger amongst the Afghani people directed toward the United States. This also lead to Mullah Mohammod Omar, the current leader of Afghanistan, to form a ground of men to "rebuild" his country. They are now known as the Taliban. Omar's personal description is, "A simple band of dedicated youths determined to establish the laws of God on
As Russian forces pushed into Afghanistan seeking to conquer the nation, spread communism, and secure oil routes, the United States suspected Russia may be successful in its conquest. Moreover, President Carter’s administration took notice and produced presidential findings, allowing the United States to indirectly and mildly support Mujahidin rebel forces, who sought to confront the Russian forces and win back Afghanistan. President Carter utilizing the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) funneled small weapons and funding to associates within the Pakistan intelligence community who in turn provided the items to the rebel forces (Coll
India had strong relations with Afghan King Zahir Shah’s regime. In 1950, India and Afghanistan signed a “Friendship Treaty”. When Pakistan joined the military pacts, SEATO and CENTO, in 1954 and 1955, the Afghan Prime Minister, Sardar Daud, described the U.S. military aid to Pakistan as a grave danger to the security and peace in
There is very little doubt that this decade of 20th century was characterised by a very vicious strategic rivalry between the two contemporary super powers. Although the Soviet-US Enmity was the most dominant factor of this war, yet it was never fought between these two countries. One can argue that this was the only US war where not even a single US soldier received even a single bullet. With very little doubt, one can say that this US-Soviet war was actually fought between Pakistan and the USSR, where the Pakistani army was fighting to fulfil its commitments with its ally. A tussle between Kabul and Moscow finally involved an active role by Islamabad and Washington. Both Islamabad and Washington were able to rebuild their relationship a
Nur Muhammad Taraki communist supporters, seized control in Afghanistan on 1978. The new administration between Taraki 's extreme Khalq group and the Parcham marked a clearance of companionship with the Soviet Union. Taraki 's endeavors to enhance common instruction and redistribute land had caused a revolt by mujahideen rebels. Taraki was removed by Khalq equal Hafizullah Amin in September. Amin was viewed as a "cruel sociopath" by remote eyewitnessess, and associated Amin with being a specialist of the U.S. Focal Intelligence Agency (CIA), in spite of the fact that that was not the situation. By December, Amin 's legislature had lost control of a significant part of the nation, provoking the Soviet Union to attack Afghanistan, execute Amin, and introduce Parcham pioneer Babrak Karmal as president.
However, soon after entering Afghanistan, President Amin was executed by the Soviets. To replace Amin, the Soviets chose Babrak Karmal, who served as a puppet leader for the Soviets. Eventually, an insurgent group known as the mujahideen rose against the government, and became backed by the United States, due to the United States’ growing concern of the Soviets’ lust of world domination. President John F. Kennedy believed it was important for Afghanistan to remain un-aligned, thus funding groups in attempts to diminish Soviet presence. Over 100 000 Soviet troops controlled various cities, larger towns, and garrisons around the nation. The Soviets attempted to eliminate the mujahideen’s civilian support by bombing rural areas. Due to these bombings, over four million Afghans leave Afghanistan to seek refuge in neighbouring nations. In The Kite Runner, Amir and his father, Baba, are two of these refugees. In 1988, Afghanistan, Pakistan, the United States, and the Soviet Union signed the Geneva Accords, an agreement by which the Soviets would withdraw its troops, and Afghanistan would return to non-aligned status. In 1989, these goals were
In late December 1979 during the midst of the Cold War, Leonid Brezhnev former General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, sent his Soviet troops to Afghanistan and intervened in support of the Afghan communist government attempting to resolve conflict with anti – communists called the Afghan Guerrillas. The Afghan soviet invasion sustained for over nine years until February 1989 having an extremely high death toll and later becoming known as one of the most influential wars of last quarter of 20th century having caused the rise of extremist group Al-Qaida and is sometimes referred to as the Soviet Union's Vietnam War.
The operation began with Russian invading Afghanistan in 1979 in fears that the Middle Eastern nation would align itself with the US. As fear of Communism continued to spread through the US where they wishedd to bog Russia down in a costly war thereby turning Afghanistan into “their Vietnam”. In an operation called “Operation Cyclone”, the CIA sent money and weapons to Afghan “freedom fighters” called Mujahideen (The Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan and the U.S. Response, 1978–1980). However, all of the money and weapons went to Pakistan who would then decide which Afghan groups would receive the aid. No Americans were allowed to enter Pakistan which was ruled by military dictator Zia al-Huq whose main goals were building nuclear weapons and creating an Islamic state. During the 1980s, America gave $6 billion in aid to Pakistan. Between 1981 and 1987, the US gave $1.3 billion to Mujahideen (The Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan and the U.S. Response, 1978–1980), all of which was matched by Saudi Arabia. Similarly to the coup in Iran, the regime change operation of Afghanistan also created negative effects. For example, in 1980 the US placed a grain embargo on Russia which increased tensions between the US and Russia even more. Also, the coup led to the Afghanistan Civil War from 1989-1996. The war caused 400,000 deaths and caused the