The Protestant Reformation of the Catholic Church devastated the religious unity of Christian Europe, resulting in a great deal of antagonism, which in turn led to the persecutions, denial of civil rights, expulsion, and ultimately the torture and death of many men, women and children. The ongoing conflict was not consigned to one distinct European nation, but was experienced in every European nation that the Catholic Church ruled and reigned. There was no worldview in Europe at that time that allowed for the religious differences of men to coexist peaceably.
Hendrikus Berkhof's definition of dogma states, "a doctrine, derived from Scripture, officially defined by the Church, and declared to rest upon divine authority" (Enns 2014, 505). Denominations, churches, and ministries will often post their doctrine online to describe their core beliefs. Published doctrine is helpful and important as it binds and anchors a community of believers around a set of strongly considered beliefs based on Scripture and developed in a systematic way.
During the Crusades, there was a fair amount of religious tension. Muslims and Christians fought for Jerusalem. Muslims had it, and at the end of Crusades, Muslims controlled the territory. During the Spanish Inquisition, Christians sought to rid Spain of other religions (like Jews). This reflects a power struggle because Christians strived to gain absolute power. Important people involved included Richard the Lionhearted (central figure in the third crusade), Pope Urban II (first crusade), and Saladin (second and third crusades). This power struggle continued as a result of the Crusades, and it truly influenced the era because it changed the geopolitical landscape of the Middle East.
This caused many problems because Protestants and Catholics could not live together peacefully. Individuals from both religions did not see the others view. This was one reason that the Enlightenment was needed. Because the members of each religion resented each other so much, many wars were fought. This also brought about new questions as to which religion had the correct beliefs. The religion that was practiced was dependent upon the country, and the leader of that country.4
John Calvin just like Martin Luther believed in predestination that a person’s fate is determined before his or her birth. He was also a huge figure in the development of Christian theology and Calvinism. Calvin believed in the idea of protestionism and went to convince other people to support his reformation. As Calvin moved on with his idea of Calvinism it affected many countries such as Bohemia, Hungary, the Netherlands, Scotland, England and the thirteen American colonies in America. As he increased his political power he became head of his national church rather than following papacy of the church.
Western civilization found its origins in the ancient world of Greece and Rome. Although these laid the foundation for governmental, philosophical, and structural elements of the modern world, people’s day-to-day life remained the same. The Renaissance and Reformation transformed the mind of the ancient man into the individualist of today. We will explore this transformation through three key steps: the philosophy of the time, the condition of the Catholic Church, and finally, the cultures response.
Discuss the chief ideas of Calvinism and show how they were similar to the ideas of Lutheranism. How did they vary from Lutheranism? Why did Calvinism become the major international form of Protestantism?
Religious wars started with religious tension between Protestant and Roman Catholic people. One being, the King of Spain, Philip II, tried to force people of England to go back to the Roman Catholic Church. He sent Spanish Armada that had 30,000 men to go take the throne away from Queen Elizabeth who was Protestant. Their effort did not work and crumbled when English forces sent ships and the Spanish vessels scattered all over the North Sea. Another reasoning behind these wars was religious convictions and irritations with the Netherlands and Spanish. Philip issued an army to go to the Netherlands to put down the Calvinist movement in 1567. Their resistance against the Spanish lead to a full out war of rebellion. The Netherlands had won their
The Church was slow to respond to the threat of Luther and other reformers and so the council of Trent , tried to fix the problems that had triggered the Reformation .“The gathering at Trent found a balanced solution , since it decided to discuss alternately one theological issue and one reform issue.”This lead to the state and the church becoming more organised and systematic , the clergy was better trained and so there was better religious teachings and instructions. The catholic church after the counter- reformation put in more effort because of the protestant threat and so became more spiritual and more educated . The consequences of the reformation and the counter- reformation let to long lasting political and religious wars and rebellions . The thirty year war ( 1618-1648) was one of them . The war was Catholics against protestants and France against the Habsburg's . The Thirty year war was one of the wort conflicts Europe had experienced till then
Martin Luther and John Calvin as Religious Leaders of the Reformation Martin Luther became an Augustinian Monk in 1505. He spent two years studying Scripture before being ordained as a priest. In 1510, Luther was sent to Rome and was shocked by the
The grace of God is an amazing gift which saves people from the inevitable grasp of the sin. However, the grace itself is in question: is a person guaranteed with salvation when saved once, or can the grace be taken away from him? Augustinian-Calvinist had taken the side of the eternal salvation, or the guaranteed salvation when saved once. However, Arminian had taken the side of the conditional salvation, which claims that grace can be taken away from anyone who is willing to
A thorough understanding of the Thirty Years’ War is essential in discussing the effects of the Peace of Westphalia. Religion dominated authority in Europe in the 16th century, namely Catholicism. However, dissatisfaction grew as the Protestant Reformation gained more followers, resulting in tension and divisions throughout the Holy Roman Empire. Weakened imperial power and unrest between ruler and subjects began as early as 1555. Although the Thirty Years’ War broke-out based on religious conflicts, the motives of the war became mainly of political supremacy as fighting continued on a continental scale in the latter years. It pitted Protestant against Catholic, the Holy Roman Empire against France, the German princes and princelings
The 17th century was full of religious, political, social, and cultural conflicts that led to wars across Europe and the new world. With the rise of protestant beliefs the catholic started to lose power and, with the rise of humanism kings were losing power to people run parliaments. The social structure began to change with the humanism as well, with the rise of personal power the peasants began to feel equal to the nobles in self-worth if not yet in a monitory sense. This led to further conflict in the Catholic Church as they became more radical in the search for heretics
Has God decided whether or not you will be saved and go to Heaven? Is there anything you can do in determining your place in either Heaven or Hell? Calvinism and Arminianism are two differing theological standpoints that have been and are being debated frequently. These stances give an answer to the question of whether or not people are subject to predestination. Both sides hold that they are correct and backed by biblical proofs. Upon having a first look towards both views it is immediately clear and evident that it is rather difficult to discern which of the two have strong biblical support. Calvinism and Arminianism are held by all sorts of Christians from all denominations. To achieve a better understanding of each view it is important