Compare and Contract the Budget Processes and Systems of Fiscal Accountability in Presidential and Parliamentary Systems of Government.

8193 Words33 Pages
Comparative Public Administration

PROJECT

Compare and contract the budget processes and systems of fiscal accountability in Presidential and Parliamentary systems of Government.

Student: Lyn Marie James

Abstract

There is diversity of forms of government (Laundy, 1989) and different ways of classifying them and as such, this paper sets out to discuss the budgetary powers of the legislature under different forms of government, and the environment that informed the political structures. The paper discusses the different forms of government systems that exist in various countries with specific focus on the Presidential system as obtained in countries such as the United States of America and the Parliamentary “Westminster” form
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The expansion of budgetary control over the rest of the military and into non-military areas during the Eighteenth Century was slow and inconsistent. However, as Parliament became more accustomed to allocating funds, some modern concepts and terminology began to develop. In 1733 Robert Walpole, Whig Prime Minister under George I, began referring to the inauguration of the discussions on the Crown's proposed expenditures as the "opening of the budget." This convention continued, and gradually by 1800 this usage was universally accepted in England.
In France a conscious effort to make government rational was initiated. Following the lead of the Philosophers during the Age of Reason, and eager to replace the medieval traditions of the ancient regime, the French introduced sweeping changes to their government and society during the reign of Napoleon.
As with the English, except with different motives, Napoleon's first concern was with mastering the military budget. To obtain better information on, and to control expenditures, he established a Corps des Comptes. The general who headed this corps became,

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