From the time of the advent of Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory and therapy until now, psychologists have searched for new and better ways to both understand and treat the human psyche. Many psychologists have spent their lives analyzing the complexities of human thought, behavior, and interactions with societal influences in order to find new ways to guide humans towards a more fulfilling human experience. Throughout time, various theories and models of therapy have emerged, each with their strengths and weaknesses in their efforts to help humanity live more fulfilling lives. Psychoanalytic, Adlerian, existential, person-centered, gestalt, behavior, cognitive, cognitive behavior (CBT), reality, feminist, postmodern, and family systems approaches have all made important contributions towards the evolution of psychological theory and therapy. One of the most widely accepted and practiced forms of theory and therapy in today’s world of psychology is CBT. Cognitive-Behavior Therapy has a rich and storied history, contains more inherent strengths than weaknesses, and provides effective treatment for a variety of psychological conditions.
Carl Rogers (1902-87) was the founder of the client-centred or person-centred approach to counselling and therapy. (McLeod 2001)
CBT was first described by Professor Aaron Beck in the early 1950’s (Wilding & Milne, 2008). In contrast with many of the psychological therapy models of the time, CBT was based on the belief that maladaptive thoughts and behaviours arise not from what has happened in our lives, but from how we think about what has happened to us (Taylor, 2006; Newman, 2013). A variety of approaches are considered to fall within the domain of CBT – these include Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (Dryden, 2009), Beck’s CBT approach, and Meichenbaum’s Cognitive Behaviour Modification (Meichenbaum, 1977) These approaches share 3
The purpose of this paper is analysing the contributing treatment approaches that resulted in the emergence of the Behavioural Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT). The paper presents and analyses the contributions that previous psychological treatment methods made in culminating the CBT. To this end, the paper presents the main treatment methods that are assumed to be most important and analyse their main arguments in
Psychotherapy and counselling are inseparable. The effectiveness of a counselling program is not just based on the connectedness and interaction between a therapist and a client, but also the framework of the counselling approach in helping the client improving his mental health or overcoming personal problems. There are an extensive number of psychotherapies developed by past researchers, with each therapeutic concept offering unique contributions in understanding human behaviour and useful implications for counselling practice (Bedi et al., 2011).
Counselling psychology has been referred to as a “paradigm” due to its many therapeutic models and has been argued by the philosopher Thomas Kuhn (1962) that it is a “scientific community which is comprised of theories and concepts, experiences” (Woolfe, Dryden & Strawbridge, 2003). The humanistic paradigm is one that has been dominated by Carl Rogers and Fritz Perls, whereby the entire focus is on the client, also known as person centred or client centred therapy. On the other hand there is the existence of a more solution focused, problem solving paradigm which has been advocated by Albert Ellis’ Rational Emotive Therapy, Aaron Becks’ Cognitive Therapy and more recently Donald Meichenbaum’s Cognitive Behaviour Modification. Certain aspects
Firstly, one strength of the counselling relationship which makes it the most important factor is its effectiveness. The counselling relationship allows client and counsellor to agree on tasks and goals (Colin Feltham 2010). Through the relationship the client can become aware of their problems and work with the counsellor to find solutions. The relationship works well in Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) as it combines interpersonal and technical factors to result in a favourable outcome (Glovozolias 2004). CBT is action orientated therapy used to change faulty thinking patterns to help clients overcome mental disorders such as depression. (Whisman 1993) Discussed five studies that looked at the relationship and CBT in cases of depression; three studies found the therapeutic relationship significant for positive outcome. Unfortunately, in CBT value is placed on technique and therefore there is not much research on the effect of the counselling relationship in this therapy. Although, the relationship is vital in person centred therapy, as it emphasises the importance of the therapeutic relationship between counsellor and client. In person centred therapy the counsellor must find ways of using the relationship to highlight issues in the clients functioning. Person centred therapy was introduced by Carl Rodgers and is one of the most widely used therapies as it focuses on the client's thoughts, feelings, behaviours and needs.
Cognitive Behavioural Therapy – is concerned with helping people form realistic expectations and challenging negative assumptions that have been accepted too readily. Work is given to service users so they can test elements of this intervention themselves between sessions, practice their skills and test out conclusions in their real life situations. This model of intervention is also mixed with client centred counselling, which operates on the thinking that people tend to move towards healing on their own especially if the counsellor;
Unlike Person-Centred therapy Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is a scientific model founded in the 1960’s by Aaron Beck. It joins the theories of both Cognitive therapy and behavioural. He noticed that many of his counselling clients had an “Internal dialogue” (Beck, 1979) that was often negative and self-defeating and influenced behaviour. He realised that by working on these internal dialogues and making them positive it could effectively lead to positive changes in the behaviour of the clients. CBT focuses on the images, self-belief and attitudes held by the client and how these things can affect the client’s
Therapy has been used for many generations as a mean to resolve dilemmas in a persons’ life. Unfortunately, due to cultural aspects, therapy is generally centered on an individual. We typically presume that any problem that one may exhibit can be solved through personal realizations. However, society and therapists alike are
In order to evaluate whether modern behavioural therapies can help a client accept the uncertainty of their future, I am going to look in detail at two Modern Behavioural therapies, REBT – Rational Emotive Behavioural Therapy and CBT – Cognitive Behaviour Therapy to ascertain their use in therapy with a client.
Among the three main approaches to insight therapy (psychoanalysis, client-centered, or group therapy), the one that l believe has the most reasonable way to deal with psychological problems, is client-centered therapy. Client-centered therapy is an insight therapy that emphasizes providing a supportive emotional climate for clients, who play a major role in determining the pace and direction of their therapy (pg. 459). According to Carl Rogers, the man who devised client-centered therapy, three elements were necessary to promote positive changes in therapy: Genuineness (honest communication), Unconditional positive regard (therapist remains supportive, non-judgmental) and Empathy (therapist understands issues from client’s point of view) (pg. 460). In following these three elements, client and therapist were working together equally and helped client become more aware of themselves and even feel more comfortable with their therapist and the idea of therapy. Some people don’t seek help because they feel therapy might be too intimidating for them or it’s a step that they fear having to take. I can agree with this, because from my personal experience, l had pushed off therapy for so long because l was afraid to admit that l needed it.
The father of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is Albert Ellis. Born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in 1913, New York became Dr. Ellis’ home since his family move there when he was four years old. Ellis struggled with health problems and physical ailments from childhood until his death in 2007. As a child, Ellis survived on his own as his parents were absent. His father was a traveling business person and his mother was emotionally absent (Albert Ellis Institute, 2012). The foundation of REBT developed when a youthful Ellis utilized a philosophy of viewing life to deal with his physical and family issues (Corey, 2013).
Rogers, C. (1959). ‘A theory of therapy, personality, and interpersonal relationships, as developed in the client-centered framework’, Psychology: A Study of a Science. vol. 3, pp. 184-256
The Cognitive Behavioural approach to therapy sees the client-therapist relationship as a collaborative effort to identify disturbances in the client’s cognitive processes and to then transform these processes to create beneficial changes in thought and behaviour (Corey, 2013). Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is a structured therapy whereby the therapist may take a direct approach in collaborating with the client to set goals and create a therapeutic agenda (Josefowitz & Myran, 2005). Cognitive Behaviour Therapy makes use of an array of interventions which promote skills within the client to facilitate self-directed change (Josefowitz & Myran, 2005). Rational Emotive Behaviour